Lecture and Chapter 3 Notes

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University of Toronto St. George
Thavarajah/ Woolley/ Nitz

Course Code Jasmyn Lee Chapter 3: Organic Compounds: Alkanes and Their Stereochemistry 3.1 Functional Groups  Functional Group – collection of atoms at a site that have a characteristic behaviour in all molecules where it occurs  The group reacts in a typical way, generally independent of the rest of the molecule  Eg/ the double bonds in simple and complex alkenes react with bromine in the same way Functional Groups with Multiple Carbon-Carbon Bonds  alkenes have C-C double bond  Alkynes have C-C triple bond  Arenes have special bonds that are represented as alternating single and double C-C bonds in a six membered ring Functional Groups with Carbon Singly Bonded to an Electronegative Atom Groups with a Carbon-Oxygen Double Bond (Carbonyl Groups) Survey of Functional Groups Course Code Jasmyn Lee 3.2 alkanes and Alkane Isomers  Alkanes – compounds with C-C single bonds and C-H bonds only (no functional groups) o Called aliphatic compounds  Connecting carbons can lead to large or small molecules  The formula for an alkane with no rings in it must bn 2n+2 o n = Number of C’s  Alkanes are saturated with hydrogen (no more can be added( Alkane Isomers  CH 4 methane, C 2 =6ethane, C 3 =8propane  The molecular formula of an alkane with more than three carbons can give more than one structure o C4(butane) = butane and isobutene o C5(pentane) = pentane, 2-methylbutane, and 2,2-dimethylpropane  Alkanes with C’s connected to no more than 2 other C’s are straight-chain or normal alkanes  Alkanes with one or more C’s connected to 3 or 4 C’s are branches-chain alkanes Constitutional Isomers  Constitutional Isomers – isomers that differ in how their atoms are arranged in chains  Compounds other than alkanes can be constitutional isomers of one another  They must have the same molecular formula to be an isomer Condensed Structures of Alkanes  We can represent an alkane in a brief form or in many types of extended form  A condensed structure does not show bonds but lists atoms, such as o CH 3H 2H CH2(bu3ane) o CH CH ) CH (butane) 3( 2 2 3 Course Code Jasmyn Lee 3.3 Alkyl Groups  Alkyl Group – remove one H from an alkane (a part of a structure)  General Abbreviation “R” (for Radical, an incomplete species or the “rest” of the molecule)  Name: replace –ane ending of alkane with 0yl ending o CH 3s “methyl” (from methane) o CH 2H i3 “ethyl” from ethane Types of Alkyl Groups  Classified by the connection site o Primary Alkyl Group – C at end of chain o Secondary Alkyl Group – C in middle o Tertiary Alkyl Group – C with three C’s attached to it 3.5 Properties of Alkanes  Called paraffin’s (low affinity compounds) because they do not react a
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