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Chapter 1

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Chapter 1: Structure and Bonding▯ ▯ 1.1 Atomic Structure: The Nucleus▯ -atom consists of a dense positively charged nucleus that consists of the protons and neutrons (which are electrically neutral) surrounded (at a relatively large distance) by electrons ▯ -neutral atom: number of protons = number of electrons▯ -extremely small (10^-14 to 10^-15 m in diameter), but nucleus contains essentially all the mass of atom; electron mass is negligible, circulate nucleus at a distance of about 10^-10 m (thus typical atom diameter is 2 x 10^-10 m or 200 picometers pm; 1 pm = 10^-12 m; note 1 angstrom = 100 pm = 10^-10 m)▯ -specific atoms are described by atomic number (Z), which gives number of p (or e) and by mass number (A), which is total p + n in nucleus▯ -all atoms of an element have same atomic number (1 for H, 6 for C, etc.), but can have different mass numbers depending on the number of neutrons; same atomic number, but different mass number = isotope▯ -weighted avg mass in amu of an element’s naturally occurring isotopes is its atomic mass/weight 1.008 amu for H, 12.011 amu C (periodic table has the atomic masses)▯ ▯ 1.2 Atomic Structure: Orbitals▯ -behaviour of a specific electron can be described by mathematical expression called a “wave equation” (same type used to describe waves in fluid)▯ -Sol’n to wave equation is called a wave function or an orbital; denoted by Green psi ᴪ▯ -by plotting the square of the wave function psi^2 in 3D space an orbital describes the volume of space around a nucleus that an electron is most likely to occupy (represents where electron spends 90%-95% of its time)▯ -4 types of orbitals: s, p, d, f (s and p are most common in organic and biological chem)▯ -s is sphe
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