11.03 - LITLOT - Chapter 3.doc

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Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry
Willem Vanderburg

Chapter 3 – Living In the Labyrinth of Technology 1. The complexity of the interactions between a society and its technology may be represented by 45 categories of how a technology can influence society and another 45 categories of how society can influence a technology. Explain this using the concept of the technological cycle and the primary dimensions of mediation of the culture of a society • 5 Phases of Technological Cycle: i. Invention (Personal: have an idea) ii. Innovation/Development (Others involved: work out the idea) iii. Application (Patent it, produce, introduce to working technology of society) iv. Diffusion (Usage, grow) v. Displacement (Disappear: no longer a part of the working part of society) • 9 Dimensions of Cultural Mediation between the members of a community in their world: i. Science ii. Technology iii. Economy iv. Social Structure v. Political Organizations vi. Legal Organizations vii. Morality viii. Religion ix. Art/Aesthetic • The 9 dimensions are interconnected and enfolded in on another • Ex. Social activities contribute to other dimensions of mediation • Dimensions are enfolded into the way of life in a way in which a culture mediates all its relationships with reality. • The technological cycle interacts with the dimensions of mediation, each influences the other. *Need an example =( 2. How does a traditional society regulate individual technologies on the basis of experience and culture? • Traditional (old) society regulates it based more on External Relations (dominates) • External relations: Between elements of technology and something else (that is not technology) • Sustainable/ context appropriate • Technology is relatively independent from other technologies • Improvement of one technology doesn’t really influence another technology • Flows of matter and energy in biosphere are short • Technology evolves/improves in response to a societal need • Ex. Canoe – agriculture (amount of H 2) • Ex. Indigenous people on an island  technology for making shelter, pottery, tools etc. • Learn how to make things from a ‘master’ until enough meta-conscious knowledge has been built up to become a ‘master’ 3. How do contemporary societies regulate individual technologies, which participate in a universal technology that has taken on the properties of a system? • Contemporary (modern day) society is dominated by Internal Relations • Internal Relations: Relations b/w different elements of technology • Creative process functions within the context of the organization of the BM (not going to invent something that already exists) • Patent legislation • Make something new  publish results  many different technologies can use this new innovation • Technologies are interconnected • Minor innovation can lead to many other innovations (chain reaction)  flow of information through system • Innovations may not necessarily actually HELP society • Technology becomes an autonomous system that is beyond our control • Society must adapt in order to use this technology • People will turn to technology to find solutions to their problems (resources/ energy will be put into doing this) • Result  people serve technology 4. Explain the difference between internal and external relations, and how the dominance of one creates one kind of relationship between technology and society and the dominance of the other creates another kind Internal Relations External Relations • Technology is self regulated • People regulate • Relations b/w different technology elements of technology • Relations b/w • Creative process functions elements of technology and within the context of the something else (that is not organization of the BM (not technology) going to invent something • Sustainable/ context that already exists) appropriate • Make something new  • Technology is publish results  many relatively independent from other technologies different technologies can use this new innovation • Improvement of one • Technologies are technology doesn’t really interconnected influence another • Minor innovation can lead to technology • Flows of matter and many other innovations (chain reaction)  flow of energy in biosphere are information through system short • Innovations may not • Technology necessarily actually HELP evolves/improves in response to a societal need society • Technology becomes an • Ex. Canoe – autonomous system that is agriculture (amount of H2O) beyond our control • Ex. Indigenous people • Society must adapt in order on an island  technology to use this technology for making shelter, pottery, • People will turn to tools etc. technology to find solutions • Learn how to make to their problems (resources/ things from a ‘master’ until energy will be put into doing enough meta-conscious this) knowledge has been built up • Result  people serve to become a ‘master’ technology • Technology serving people 5. Explain how the unique conditions that existed in Western Europe acted as resources to sustain the process of industrialization • 5 conditions that supported the process of industrialization are: 1. Technological Pool of Inventions/Devices o During medieval times, limited use of inventions/devices o Medieval society starts to fall apart when
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