11.24 - LITLOT - Chapter 4 & 6 (2).doc

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Department
Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry
Course
APS301H1
Professor
Willem Vanderburg
Semester
Summer

Description
Chapter 4 & 6 – Living In the Labyrinth of Technology 1. Explain the process of knowing and doing separating from experience and culture. • Begins in an abstract world mapped in a diff frame of ref by a disembodied observer who can only be ‘present’ in his technological imagination i. If already have a knowledge based on culture, already know how things work in real world and will use this knowledge and experience to solve problems that occur in the real world, as opposed to using and abstract/imaginary knowledge. • Ex. Grammar: Learn grammar before you go to school just via daily conversation (knowing and doing embedded in experience and culture) , but you learn other grammar rules within the classroom that you did not learn from your experience (knowing and doing separated from experience and culture) • Ex. Science & Math: Detach the area of study and make assumptions that don’t actually exist in reality • Ex. Physics: Many ‘invalid’ assumptions made for Newtonian physics, thus making it difficult to develop a metaconcious knowledge b/c it does not correlate with our real life experiences. (Mathematically correct, maybe not physically correct) • Knowledge separated from experience and culture fares well with performance values but fails in terms of context compatibility 2. Using one or two examples, explain why knowing and doing embedded in experience and culture cannot grow into knowing and doing separated from experience and culture. • Ex. Beam: Construction worker with many years of experience can eyeball beam and say it’s not strong enough, but engineer may not be able to tell b/c he designed is using math skills he learned in university which may not always fit the real world. Chapter 4 & 6 – Living In the Labyrinth of Technology • Ex. Photocopier: worker could tell that adjustments needed to be made to the photocopier based purely on the way that it ‘sounded’ - knowing and doing embedded in experience and culture. • Ex. Grammar: Learn grammar before you go to school just via daily conversation (knowing and doing embedded in experience and culture), but you learn other grammar rules within the classroom that you did not learn from your experience (knowing and doing separated from experience and culture)… if someone asks you why the grammar is that way, you don’t know, you just know that it is. • Ex. Pulp Mill: workers have a hard time understanding what happened when computers took over b/c the knowledge they had of the pulp mill was based on their experience, which could not be correlated with what was happening on the computer screen 3. Explain why you agree or disagree with the following statement:*** “Human intelligence is essentially a question of problem solving.” 4. Explain the relationship between the triple abstraction within which a specialist does his or her work and the portion of the technology based connectedness of a society that overlaps with his or her domain of competence. • First abstraction: Specialists detach their domain of competence from the rest of the world by only knowing the connections b/w their domain of competence and the rest of the world as ‘inputs’ and ‘outputs’ • Second abstraction: specialists narrow their focus to only the aspects of their domain of competence that they are studying and ignoring the rest of the ‘chunk’ o Ex. No specialist could know everything that goes on in a hospital, so they would narrow their focus to the area of the hospital that they are studying Chapter 4 & 6 – Living In the Labyrinth of Technology • Third abstraction: specialists then apply their highly specialized technical knowledge to the area being studied with the whole goal of optimizing input/output ratios and performance values. • The goal of the specialist/tripleabstraction is to strengthen local TBC 5. Explain the different roles played by design exemplars and analytical exemplars in the design of any modern product • Both play roles in the design of any modern product • Design exemplar: o Deal with product from ‘outside in’ in functional and aesthetic terms belonging to the world of experience and culture • Analytical exemplars deal with it ‘inside out’ in terms of technological knowledge separated from experience • Ex. Ford Mustang: made use of design and analytical exemplars. Design exemplars from other various vehicles were used for the design of the mustang’s parts. These design exemplars were optimized using analytical exemplars. 6. Explain why corporations need to plan the entire technological cycle of a new product once knowing and doing are separated from experience culture. • The technological cycle of a product must transform from a linear sequential cycle to a cycle where all steps are undertaken simultaneously • The design, manufacture, marketing and production phases of the technological cycle become simultaneous and are all planned at the beginning of the technological cycle. o While product is being designed, it’s manufacture is being planned so that design will be economically compatible with manufacturing process Chapter 4 & 6 – Living In the Labyrinth of Technology o Number of units to be produced is planned at same time so number of units produced will compensate for initial capital expenses o Market and societal trends also monitored at the same time through process so design can be altered to reflect consumer preferences o Phases of cycle become interdependent as a change in one means changes are needed in the others. 7. When knowing and doing are separated from experience and culture, corporations need to plan the entire technological cycle of any new product. The revises sequence is a part of this plan. Explain its role compared to the accepted sequence. SAME AS 6? 8. Explain how the techno structure makes use of the latest specialized knowledge. • Technostructure makes use of the technical cycle which requires technical planning which
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