LITLOT Chapter 1.docx

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Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry
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Willem Vanderburg

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APS301 Living in the Labyrinth of Technology: Chapter 1 1. Explain technology-based connectedness and why prior to industrialization it was indistinguishable from culture-based connectedness.  technology-based connectedness --> network of flows of matter + energy  prior to industrialization, the social division of labour assigned entire activities required to maintain and evolve a way of life to individual people, thereby creating social roles like farmers, bakers, etc o as a result, technology-based connectedness generally corresponded to the social organization of a way of life  Technology based connectedness is anchored in the biosphere  Indistinguishable before because it was rooted in culture based connectedness  Interdependencies based on kinship and social ties (not on markets)  culture-based connectedness controlled technology-based connectedness until industrialization  the result of a technology depends on the function of the technology and the surroundings of the technology 2. Using the concept of cultural cycle, explain why the interaction between technology and the host society is a reciprocal one.  "homo faber" = man the maker  Externalization through behaviour  objectivization  internalization  renewed externalization, etc.  The culture cycle is a central aspect of living (wake up in morning, reestablish relationships with others and adapt to new situations of that day, re organize brain mind, go to sleep, repeat cycle)  „people changing technology‟ and „technology changing people‟  Activities that change the technology a society possesses and affects the technology based connectedness of that society  This changes how life is rooted in the biosphere.  Changes to technology based connectedness affect culture based connectedness (rebuild cultural niche)  Technology changing people - surroundings influences a person‟s life.  Technology becomes universal – all cultures forced to adapt to a way of life based on technology  People change technology to create a new way of life – technology changes people, forces them to change culture and adapt to the technology-based one. 3. Explain the difference between the way materials flow through the networks of flows of matter associated with the way of life of a society and the way they flow within the biosphere. What is the significance of these differences?  The way materials flow through the networks of flows of matter associated with the way of life of a society is that it is in a linear fashion  Take from the biosphere, change, waste is produced.  In the biosphere, everything works in cycles, oxygen cycle, nitrogen cycle etc. In the biosphere, there is NO waste; the output of one thing becomes the input of another.  The difference is that although a linear flow of materials seems to work now, ultimately, it is not sustainable.  Materials flow is a closed system  Nature produces flows in closed cycles (transformations) to supply the flows for the linked energy systems  A „self-purifying system‟ 4. What are the primary differences between the network of flows of energy associated with the way of life of a society and the network of flows of energy within the biosphere? Explain the significance of these differences.  Incoming flows 1. Sustainable 2. Non-sustainable (becomes non sustainable when we take so much at such a high rate that the biosphere does not have time to replenish itself, Ex. Fish) 3. Continuous  Everything we do is connected via energy flows  Planet depends on cycles  If you take out more than can be produced, ecosystems could collapse  Output, energy back into space via low energy heat. 5. Explain how the flows across the society-biosphere boundary can be classified in terms of their availability for human use.  Incoming Flows o Sustainable – if cycle can produce enough of material to regenerate, rate of human consumption is less than or equal to rate at which the biosphere can regenerate o Non-sustainable – some are a partially sustainable, and partially non sustainable, human consumption is greater than the rate at which it can be regenerated o Continuous – into networks of flows of energy in a way that odes not affect human use ( not on present scale) Ex. Sun 6. Why does the technical division of labour separate the technology – based connectedness from the culture based-connectedness of human life and society? Explain how it strengthens the former at the expense of the latter.  Converts portions of a technology based connectedness integral to the culture based connectedness of a society into a relatively separate socio-technical entity structured around a sequence of endlessly repeating steps  Strengthens TBC in 5 ways: 1. workers assigned narrow tasks that can be optimized 2. production plan can be created and optimized 3. task can be assigned to either people or machines 4. industry can use unskilled workers, reduce labour cost 5. workers are isolated (no socialization), more time for production  These changes result in increased efficiency, productivity and profitability  Weakens CBC in 5 ways: 1. workers became unintelligent 2. workers had to suppress their brains, lose creativity o Result is nervous fatigue and psychological issues o Emerging skills aren‟t actually skills, the people learning to do the steps didn‟t figure out how to do it o Suppression of self 3. Control: o Method Control – how you do your work o Timing Control – how you pace your work 4. Demands: o Demand of factory increase as opposed to craftsmen o Monetary demand increases o Problem solving demand increases o workers faced increased demands of having to tend to, monitor and fix the machines 5. isolation of workers eliminates social support o Created a growing gap between TCB and CBC o Workplace is separated from daily life o Change in the relationship with the biosphere o Throughput of matter and energy increased 7. Effect of industrialization on the tech-based connectedness of a society  All things involved in technology are based on/suspended in CBC and TBC  Industrialization has 2 components: o People changing technology o Technology changing people  Up until industrialization, most of society‟s CBC controlled TBC  Industrialization caused people to work with technology in order to increase an output of a product.  Technology became very important in society  People were forced to adapt to the technology and remove themselves from their cultures as they moved to their new way of life. 8. Principle economic adjustment  Capital becomes most critical factor of production o
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