CLA160H1 Chapter Notes -Gaius Gracchus, Scipio Aemilianus, Gracchi
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Mar. 5, 2013
emperor, common, member of spouses… children, there are a quiet number of elites that we can
identify and also, individuals because of the existence of inscription in context of statue, standing… for
republic, there are less materials remains…
we don’t know what ppl look like… there are a lot of writings talking about whehter marius and sulla
identified… but theres no general agreement on it. caesar, already changes in so many contexts.
pompey the great thought that we can identify…. (best known)
gracchi brothers are worth talking about. they continued to remain so famous in later times. western
cultural tradition… them being reformers…. whenever ppl thought theres something wrong in society,
there were reformers, always went back to the gracchis said and did. wanted to avoid faith.
they remain powerful legacy.
late reformers in historical background. like a bit more radical spartacus (60 years after grachi, rebel
family tree of the Gracchi
p. cornelius scipio adopts p cornelius scipio aemilianus. (185-129 BC) and senator 146 corinth l.aemilius
paullus. foremost generous in his generation. young man adopted… takes the name adopted by his
father… p. cornelius scipio aemiianus… (185-129 BC)
daughter cornelia marries gracchus and has tiberius gracchus and gaius gracchus (163-133 and 153-121
BC). and also a daughter semprnia who marries p. cornelius scipio aemilianus* important absolute
leading figure in that generation.
the two gracchi dates abolsute leading level of roman society. there are hardly others who makes of
value in the last 100 years.
thus… absolute lead, how can they be a case that these two are known as reformers… what do they
want to change? why 'reformers'??? some of the most conservatives??? how can one explain it?
- only a consequence because it was a military goal…. #of ppl in the army needed.
thus the prof looks for parallels.. analogies… ex. Kennedy… thus, even if its from brich background,
doesnt mean they are snobs. one cant assume they only defend their own needs and wants.
plutuarch's life of Tiberius Gracchus….
penguin book: chapter 8 pg. 161… something in fact, his ounger brother told ppl afterwards… gaius
wrote in Atrium…. aware of problem, you have to see it for yourself. ex. linving in a rich house… how do
you know what's going on throuhg ht poor? Gaius went from ROme to Atriua…. (north) very fertile
because its where wine, oilve oil is all at… he travels there… looks around and looks at labours working
on vineyard or olive groves, etc and they are imported slaves (cant understand them) … out there in
countryside going on long trip and aware of it…. families of the soliders…
NUMANTIA** everyone was at numantia mid 130s and got to know each other (northern spain) local
patriotism…. last holdl out of the celtiverians. rome took over large part of this penninusla after 2nd
punic war… with uprisings all the time… in the end, focused on numantia in 130s. but Rome won.
spaniards= spanish pride.
started army career as an officer. into souther france… and continue into numantia. during this time, he
thinks and then there was fighting, behaved bravely… and eventually came back to rome and time to
begin to make his mark in civic life (politics). become elected and serve country in different positions as
an aristocrat. he run for office as tribune of people.
ask ourself… discovery in atrium… no romans working in their land…. WHY turned this way? what is the
situation? we should analyze the reason here…
- rich senators buying land and using cheap slaves to till the land… : actions by the aristocracy* with
money and power taking over the land and then buy up more land and farm the land using slaves, the
work force) we have the SLAVE ECONOMY in large extent. TOLL OF MILITARY SERVICE…Rome always at
campaing…. army composed of citizens thus cant hire them to work because they are at military
campaigns. place in army was determined by property you have… those who had no property werent
accepted into army. in those days, property was in the land and that’s how it was measured. thus,
farmers… supporting you… thus needed class of romans in army… harvesting, plant second
harvest…where the actual person who owe land cant do it… thus, they are out, remains women and
children trying to take farm… and cant provide all the needs… thus, in loan… need good harvest… the
cycle goes on, so to protect it, with the money you get farms with workers. thus LAND AND DEBT are
illustrated in earlier period already. its unavoidable…because of hazard of agriculture and scarcity of
land LR 39-40. (early account from livy). people don’t necessary die of famine… but what happens is ever
diccult manage to live on land is that migratory movement* to cities and above all city of Rome growing
a lot and continues to grow through the last C BCE where agricultures not doing all that well.
tiberius' possible motives
reducing urban proletariate
fear of large number of slaves
own career (TG as demagogue)
what influened gracchus? the issue of military strenght for ROme. reason here is due to army was
recruited, you need men with proeprty. all farmers had to leave farm… don’t have property because
they are renting ppl…. and thus poor people couldn’t get into the army at all. thus, that was an issue
that gracchus wanted to change. importance of manpower** the more soldiers we have more security.
thus way to be strong nad scare enemies. every year fewer ppl above min. property… Rome didn’t use
mercenaries. at this point, Rome was using other soldiers too not just roman citizens (allies in italy**)
italy at this time, a puzzle of different units of population of cities and villages and towns with different
status. (divde and rule***) the policy still remains who are spread out. They might speak different
languages but since Rome with dominant powers, they have treaties with them, and thus part of the
treaties, as soon Rome off to war, they had to send out troops. thus half of roman soldiers off to war
were allied soiders under roman command with highet commander being from Rome. there will be
problems…and have to be resolved. Rome not running out of soldiers but not secure situation. thus
recreating potnetial for military strenght at Rome*
Only a consequence because it was a military goal . #of ppl in the army needed. thus the prof looks for parallels analogies ex. Kennedy thus, even if its from brich background, doesnt mean they are snobs. one cant assume they only defend their own needs and wants. plutuarch"s life of tiberius gracchus . penguin book: chapter 8 pg. Why turned this way? what is the situation? we should analyze the reason here . Rome not running out of soldiers but not secure situation. thus recreating potnetial for military strenght at rome* theres more to it thus, you turn to plutarch"s book with famous passage, chapter 9 on pg. Presentation: provinces:illustrate another asepct of orman soceity namely the gains and possibilites of well behaving badly (that has to do with role of equites) potential clashesbewteen senators and equites in provinces.