CLA160H1 Chapter Notes -Bsc Young Boys, Drill Instructor, Olive Oil

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Published on 21 Apr 2013
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Jan. 6, 2013
education is important to the constitution of the state. each state has different characteristics.
education for Aristotle is important. (educate young) and compasses whole curriculum for future
identifies this curriculum for 4 customary subject: reading writing, music, athletic, and drawing also is
important (because no everyone is going to be dealing with affairs and aristocrats) thus craftsmen is
important as well. Teachings was knowledge itself- how to think in Greek manner, involved authority
(homer is the source) and authority of the state taught young ppl how to connect when working
(commercial, state) and also taught young how to conduct themselves in leisure times.
so, early period, there was protection for young age groups. Solon, archon in Athens in 594 wrote series
of laws to reform the state and series of rule and how to conduct education and gymnasium in the city.
ex. Solon giving public morality and whats the habit of freeborn and how he is to be brought up… teens
and next age group in succession including private citizens and public manners. public and private
aspects were important.
law specified things ex. teachers important to have teachers of good character. should be trusted by
the state and specified that gym in school should be open in certain times of day and teachers not
allowed to open up schools. making sure security of the young ppl were only for daylight hours.
all the different activities these boys are engaging in outside gym and performing festival was carefully
he talks about character named CHOREGUS (chorus master--arranging directing choirs of young ppl at
festivals) comprise children, young men, and instituted was important. need money, have to be age
group which they are stable and sober, wise, in order to behave appropriately around children. these
roles of public organizers continued with nice inscription from Menandros who carried out duties.
gynaikonomos (choirs of women) agonothetes (guys in charge of running the contest at the nemea
games) athletic musical contest in honor of god apollo. liturgies public service provided by wealthy
citizens involved paying for public festivals. pay dramatic productions, musical productions and special
events at sacrifices at festivals. duty of wealth citizens for certain number of liturgies for boys.
as with the case of menandros, many of these chrous masters were in charge of managing activities of
boys in the city. this would involve selecting participants of roster for children.. involved training them,
teaching songs, dances, and make sure actual events on the day of was a success. participation was part
of the education* and learn how to be citizens.
learning not only by doing but by watching what everyone else was doing
some ppl charge of the activities: refers to events to athena (slide show) procession of boys and young
men marching into the venue with the priest. college of priest and victors from the games and ppl in
charge was the gymnasiarchos and neoi (teenager) and paidonomos (charge of boys)
another one 2nd C BC, list of rule for cult of Hermes. paidonomos (priest making sure boys) agonothetes
(supervisor of games/contest) and palaistra (wrestling school also entered)
schools in Greek world was located in gymnasia. instituted where train athletes and adults go to exercise
routines and socialize. gym= enough room to run around, play games, multiple ppl training at the same
time. helpful was supply of drinking water and bath afterward and also a shades to be out of the sun,
and place to be clothes could be set aside securely.
late 5th C, agora served as gym part of the day in athens. (slide)
road used as processional route for torch runner (in athens) and it was a handy training spot for them
end of 5th C there was a stadion in center of the agora in the north end.
there was another gymnasium sacred grove of apollo called ACADEMIA. (where plato's lecture grew in
popularity) and more buildings were constructed.
there were other gymnasia at athens (exercise grounds and educational institution)
into hellenistic period, there was a much more regular design. (official buildings found all over the places
for gym) ex. pergamum (where the gym was): it was large space, surrounded by columned peristyle,
change rooms, and base of the sinks still remaining.
remaining from aikhanoum (afgahnistan) old photo due to the previous years.
if don’t shared culture, older institution takes on importance and particular focus of Greek activity* (the
way greeks conduct unique behaviour) at the gymnasium, you spend time with ppl who were just like
you. it was where you knew the next generation was going to follow your footstep of how to be 'Greek'
even as far as Afghanistan.. archaeologist in gymnasia found fragments of papyri contain texts as well…
it was a place of education (we think in literature) was taking place as well.
gymnasia was place of education for children and young men. not just literacy, sports.. but also for
culture and music. (how to participate in festivals) and hear stories of heroes ex. Heracles and Hermes.
strategies, cunning, and strength. how to be a smart greek* was the main theme.
Gymnasiarchos publicly hired/elected official responsible to governing body of citizen in a given city.
answered to them they way he managed the gym. might have duties to organize contest or taking the
agonothetes charge of athletic contest smaller school special for athletic training charge of palastria
paidotribai gym teacher how to do sports.
sphairistikoi ball game teachers
hoplomachoi drill sergeants and military exercise trainers.
paidonomoi school teachers, generally another term, grammatadidaskaloi (specifically for reading and
ktharistai chithra players would teach
psalteres music teachers or singing teachers.
(slide of vase painting)
slave keeping place clean lessons, stock supplies, primarily among them were olive oil (needed for
athletes who covered themselves and anointed themselves before starting exercise e. wrestler (to
better grip opponent). when athlete finished, they scraped oil and sweat and dust off the Stlengis (stele?)
scraper. this oil was called Gloios… collected and sold and used as medicine**
different mecidines involve this as an ingredient and ppl didn’t go gym to get healthy but also had by
products of these… gloios collectors collected an sold it or gym itself would sell it directly to doctors.
interesting inscriptions… come from 3 location: (assigned reading) Beroea, Miletus, and Teos.
inscription relating in beroea: needed to organize better their gymnasium and set out laws to govern
ppl's behaviour and the gym at this time was called Zopyros. because it wasn’t running properly and not
appropriate recording keeping place, length gym law was inscripted. gymnasiarchos (men in 20s)
weren't behaving the gymnasiarchos who was in charge. distrusting class for younger boys. there were
financial losses and management in previous years and city wanted to avoid this in the future… and held
regulations. thus gymnasiarchos public elected as same time as magistry (30-60 years old) a senior not
too old but mature. he has to swear oath of office. and in return, he was recorded honor and respect
and fine anyone who insult or assaulted him. hymnasiarchos duty: call all adult members over 30+ and
appoint 3 men to assist gymnasiarchos in supervising the neoteroi (young men). gymnasiarchos superise
and obey with penalty of flogging…. and safety of younger boys. no one under 30 was to take off clothes
outside specified times (raising flag). assumed that young ppl were not behaving themselves
appropriately. if you were under 30, you needed to ask for permission from one of the 3 in charge of the
gymnasihco to take your cloth off. cant anoint yourself at one gym and go somewhere else/redress/take
off…. in the state of undress, clothes were gross… and its unpleasant.
it’s a way of making sure ppl are being modest*
neaniskoi young men… training for military…. prevent bullying of younger boys.
trainers had to show up for their duties (unless doctor note to be excused) there were rules of running
class 2 times a day and code of conduct to follow.
there are class finals of competition 3 times year (final exam) to compete against each other and rate
themselves. and different officials in charge see how different classes are doing.
there were various ppl not permitted* protecting younger boys from harm and older boys from bad
no slaves allowed inside (except who were actually working) no freemen* and no sons of freedmen and
slaves. (class distinctions drawn here)
also if you were uneducated in the plasitra… you cannot come into the gym. if you were adult, you
needed to know code of conduct if you were adult, you would enroll in plastria school.
common laborer, road sweeper…low status were not allowed, paderast were not allowed either.
writers commented on this problem. (viewed as a problem). as we move into the helenistic period,
generally regarded as not ok to (rape young boys where older citizens go see naked young men train
naked…) as hellenistic period goes on, gym laws come into place. we see emphasis of protecting
younger men. paderaste… were not allowed to be inside (record of assaults from before or pedophiles) i
if you were drunk you cant go in either.
gymnasikos didn’t realize they were in there~ they got fined.*
list of law goes on outline procedures of particular festival such as HERMAIA festival for Hermes.
included athletic contest for citizens and members of gym torch contest, and laws were written.
there's also inscription in Miletos 200 BC. represent collective decision of citizen to take importance of
education. there was a large donation by eudemos of 10 talents of silver. several hundred kilograms…
designated venue was boys palastira. part of decree involved hiring teachers and trainers. ppl who
wanted the job were to apply to the city and magistrate overall control training children in school and
festivals. ppl would go in put application and citizen assembly would choose 4 teachers and 4 trainers.
trainer swore oath to hermes teachers swore to apollo. teacher paid 30 teacher 40.
we are told, trainers have option of entering pupil in other cities and provide substitute teacher. also
told school holiday, every 5th day of the month. one day off the month thus, pretty intense training and
teaching and student schedules.
similar decree from teos 2nd C BC. gymnasiarcho and paidonomoss as supervisors donation from
polythos. hired teachers annually and trained boys and girls* it gives ranking of salaries for the different
teachers. 3 teachers.. class teachers were divide where top class of older students who paid 600 a year,
middle student 5050 and lowest youngest children paid 500. gymnastic and music teachers where music
teacher (700) who taught singing, cithara. select 2 top class… little children were not taught. there was a