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Feb. 4, 2013-363.docx

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Jacqueline Brunning

Jan. 4, 2013 Warfare different question as historians have to ask when dealing with warfare and wars in antiquity 1. Who: powerful aristocrats, generals involved, city-states, different ethnic groups, civil war, poleis (allies), 2. where: meet halfway, one comes to another, sea, mt. colonies, topography, external/internal city, conquered land, siege, campaign 3. When: negotiate, after seeing an oracle, season (summer), time of day, battle lasted over beyond length of one day, how many years conflicted duration lasted, 4. How: battle tactics (phalanx), formation, naval, money, supports from slaves, soldiers, war machines, siege, engine, artillery, military leaders, cavalry, militia vs. mercenaries, 5. Why: breaking treaties, dominance, preceding events, ancient feud- fought because you always fought them..no logic, territory, resources, expanding colonies, allies, act of defense, sacred reasons, empire building, colonization, neighbour conflicts, hegemony, think about the bigger picture with the following paper. ;) Lelantine war fought between enighbours of Etruria and chalchis. (access to harbor, agricultural land, resources) contest bewteen neighbours bewteen them) AND, in the Greek accounts of this war, it invovled allied states who had little steak other than friendship. we were told that the Lelantine harken back to torjan war. panhellenic compsoed… that agreed no artilery used in the battles and later celebrated in songs and poemsby the bards. earliest example, conflicting description of what kind of war it was (range from small scale local to a big grand event) cant disprove one another because its too little evidence. idea of descrbing warfare inovling states, there are early treaties. #25,27,29 where he talks about lalw makingand treaties governied by laws. set up laws for constitution also set place lwaw govern and manage conduct of war. do this by arranging treaties with negihbour and enforce peace… promise not ot attack you, agreeing IF war comes one or another state…. back each other up, treaties invovle swearing oatsh* for law code to hold treaty and what will happen IF you broke it. these treaties minimize shocks and finding neighbour attacking territory~ treaties lie this were ways of enforcing dominance* back you up and send troops. this is a parttern of warfare run from earliest evidence in archaic period to the end of classical period. the idea that wards are conducted based on state who broke previous treaties. this is major factor why differen gks went to war* herodotus pains different pictures when he gives intro to his histories. he sets out in introduction that his histories is based in hope of explaining the reasons for the perisan wars. trauma…why did it happen? what he chooses to start with is interesting. interstate relation. (powerpoint slide). pheonicians first cause of the dispute… herodotus talks about women tkane….Io, Europa (greece princess taken back), Medea (cholchis), Helen (paris takesasian princess) and make war for 10 years. this is mythical figurs and he doesn’t present something to believe… but he strarts with this. we see tension bewteen local disputes. ppl of argos… problem with pheonician pirates… phenoicians have problems with greek pirates… but panhellenici gets inovolved… and persians as well. sets up history with tensions and problems. pattern of reprisal… sailing into the coast of southern france simiarl pattern accounted for the first sacred war* 4 sources telling us about the sacred war. 1st tells why it started: epicurian… women from argos. 2nd source tells us implies how they were dealing with the temple, and 3rd robbing and ruining pilgrims. as result, either one of these oracle who consulted by athenians told the league to go to war against them. 10 years of fighting- harbor in city destroyed. gks capable coming together in common cause, they were able to have common interest. in this case, protecting delphi. trying to formulate story explaining their past-following pattern with the torjan war and amphycniontic league invovled. possible all three causes were part of it… taken women…. assulting embassy… ppl decided to deal with them. idea that all greeks banding together… yes it mightve happened.. but significant thing for gks telling themselvs of story all the greeks days gone by grouped together to save delphi. one hand, sure theres many reasons to believe factual account but that doesn’t mean its not part of grand narrative what it means to be a greek. Warfare Greek polis no standing armies…. some possess wealth to pay for weapons, armour and wealthy enough to train for warfare. citizen soliders have time to train. and if you work sunrise to sunset…. youre not going to have time to be a solider. polis which had enough wealthy citizens to afford equpiment and time to practice could raise army of itizens. these were called the HOPLITE* (because carrying HOPLON; shield) HOPEITES= heavy infantry solider. showed as heros* didn’t wear clothes. but had helmets, Karas-breastplate, and carried shield. main method is to form the PHALANX formation* formed line and kept together in solid, pushed forward and two push agaisnt each other stab under gaps until one line broke… winners chased losers off the field, took their stuff, and went home encountering a victory. most hoplite wounded by stabbing wounds, neck, legs, arms. used spear to stab. most died after phalnax broke >..< later poe
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