Jan. 4, 2013
different question as historians have to ask when dealing with warfare and wars in antiquity
1. Who: powerful aristocrats, generals involved, city-states, different ethnic groups, civil war, poleis
2. where: meet halfway, one comes to another, sea, mt. colonies, topography, external/internal city,
conquered land, siege, campaign
3. When: negotiate, after seeing an oracle, season (summer), time of day, battle lasted over beyond
length of one day, how many years conflicted duration lasted,
4. How: battle tactics (phalanx), formation, naval, money, supports from slaves, soldiers, war
machines, siege, engine, artillery, military leaders, cavalry, militia vs. mercenaries,
5. Why: breaking treaties, dominance, preceding events, ancient feud- fought because you always
fought them..no logic, territory, resources, expanding colonies, allies, act of defense, sacred
reasons, empire building, colonization, neighbour conflicts, hegemony,
think about the bigger picture with the following paper. ;)
Lelantine war fought between enighbours of Etruria and chalchis. (access to harbor, agricultural land,
resources) contest bewteen neighbours bewteen them) AND, in the Greek accounts of this war, it
invovled allied states who had little steak other than friendship. we were told that the Lelantine
harken back to torjan war. panhellenic compsoed… that agreed no artilery used in the battles and
later celebrated in songs and poemsby the bards. earliest example, conflicting description of what
kind of war it was (range from small scale local to a big grand event) cant disprove one another
because its too little evidence.
idea of descrbing warfare inovling states, there are early treaties. #25,27,29 where he talks about lalw
makingand treaties governied by laws. set up laws for constitution also set place lwaw govern and
manage conduct of war. do this by arranging treaties with negihbour and enforce peace… promise
not ot attack you, agreeing IF war comes one or another state…. back each other up, treaties
invovle swearing oatsh* for law code to hold treaty and what will happen IF you broke it. these
treaties minimize shocks and finding neighbour attacking territory~ treaties lie this were ways of
enforcing dominance* back you up and send troops.
this is a parttern of warfare run from earliest evidence in archaic period to the end of classical period.
the idea that wards are conducted based on state who broke previous treaties. this is major factor
why differen gks went to war*
herodotus pains different pictures when he gives intro to his histories. he sets out in introduction that
his histories is based in hope of explaining the reasons for the perisan wars. trauma…why did it
happen? what he chooses to start with is interesting. interstate relation. (powerpoint slide).
pheonicians first cause of the dispute…
herodotus talks about women tkane….Io, Europa (greece princess taken back), Medea (cholchis), Helen
(paris takesasian princess) and make war for 10 years. this is mythical figurs and he doesn’t present
something to believe… but he strarts with this. we see tension bewteen local disputes. ppl of
argos… problem with pheonician pirates… phenoicians have problems with greek pirates… but
panhellenici gets inovolved… and persians as well. sets up history with tensions and problems.
pattern of reprisal… sailing into the coast of southern france
simiarl pattern accounted for the first sacred war* 4 sources telling us about the sacred war. 1st tells
why it started: epicurian… women from argos. 2nd source tells us implies how they were dealing
with the temple, and 3rd robbing and ruining pilgrims. as result, either one of these oracle who
consulted by athenians told the league to go to war against them. 10 years of fighting- harbor in city destroyed. gks capable coming together in common cause, they were able to have common
interest. in this case, protecting delphi.
trying to formulate story explaining their past-following pattern with the torjan war and amphycniontic
league invovled. possible all three causes were part of it… taken women…. assulting embassy… ppl
decided to deal with them. idea that all greeks banding together… yes it mightve happened.. but
significant thing for gks telling themselvs of story all the greeks days gone by grouped together to
save delphi. one hand, sure theres many reasons to believe factual account but that doesn’t mean
its not part of grand narrative what it means to be a greek.
Greek polis no standing armies…. some possess wealth to pay for weapons, armour and wealthy
enough to train for warfare. citizen soliders have time to train. and if you work sunrise to sunset….
youre not going to have time to be a solider. polis which had enough wealthy citizens to afford
equpiment and time to practice could raise army of itizens. these were called the HOPLITE*
(because carrying HOPLON; shield) HOPEITES= heavy infantry solider. showed as heros* didn’t wear
clothes. but had helmets, Karas-breastplate, and carried shield. main method is to form the
PHALANX formation* formed line and kept together in solid, pushed forward and two push agaisnt
each other stab under gaps until one line broke… winners chased losers off the field, took their stuff,
and went home encountering a victory. most hoplite wounded by stabbing wounds, neck, legs,
arms. used spear to stab. most died after phalnax broke >..< later poe