Jan. 14, 2013
- Social and political status of the archaic poet
o Men and women 8-6 C Sappho, Hesiod… comes from all over Agean
- Plato’s academy
- Greek democracy
- Delian league/ Athenian empire
- Women occupation >
Archaic colonization in the West
- From the west, earliest material is simply greek object types and greek writing.
- West features earliest lit- voyages of odyeusus
Straits of Messina
- Italy and island of sicily
- Thuc. 4.24
- Sailed trough homer’s odyessy
- End of Hesiod’s theogony associates with sicily… early kings of Italy (Latinus) aka etruscan
- Showing early archaic period, awareness in the west different ppl with particular names from
- Early travel in west was trade and commodities. Euobienas were earliest coloniest in strategic
locations with the Etruscans and through was metal, iron, copper and tin (copper and tin for
bronze production) spain and Britain
- Other communities by other greek groups…. For population pressures back home for good
agricultural land. All different colonies in the west sought out places for natural defence and
good acropolis and citadels which were well fortified.
- Coriintians were laid out agricultural
- MAGNA GRAECIA
- Erliest settlement was on island of Ischia off the coast of Italy- naples. Pithikussai
o Earliest settlements were chalchis.
o Eretrians and chalcidians
o Because of the gold mine, good soil and later had earthquakes
o ‘volcanic island’
- What archaelolgy found tells us that graves ad grave goods dated to the first half of 8 C BC in
them were euobian, Corinthian wares, comparable from al mina in the far east
- Local euobian style pottery wares as well mimicking wares from euobia
- Eastern seal, Egyptian phiance
- And also geometric vase from shipwreck.
- CUP OF NESTOR: first verse inscription because the inscription compared cup of nestor in illiad
which was won by Achilles. Perhaps warning against thebes… who ever drinks from it is
intriguing speculating what the owner had in mind
- Ts an interesting example of early writing from the west
- Mainland off of pthkeuosia is CUMAE- istuatied in better location and better acropolis. Marshy
countryside around it. Found by chlacidians… based from evidence near by, we date cumae to
the 8 C BC and see there were extensive natives and phtiekousai established.
- Set up result from on going result from pithekiuosai and italisn on mainland
- Greek pottery and egpytian phiance were in native grave - Strabo talks about Cumae 5.4.4
o Oldest icilan and italiote cities
o Cumae was a city in the east in the Agean. Named after mother states
- Pottery from earliest grave from cumae is 750BC and largly Corinthian and euobian local pottery
- Graves also ahd materials from crete
- Lots of etrusian objects and not such metal survived but we know ts one of the main
- Bronze cauldron dating to 700 BC
- Next phase
- Gain earliest settlers calcidians
- NAXOS, 734 BC
o Thuc 4.25 namd Thucles of Chalkis founder and set up cult of Apollo Archegetes
o Naxos was headland site
o Ships entering and leaving and had access to fertile river valley for cultivating
o Coins of Dionysis and reverse satire drinking from the wine cup
o Never major city but did serve as further colonies in sicily.
o In particular Loentini (6 years after namxos found also chaldians)- native sicil town
expelled by the chaldians commuthsts) laid huge fertile land and earliest settlement on
the hilltop. Expanded in the 6 C. and Catane (north side of the same river, also founded
by chaldians after naxos- laid on the coast)
North of naxos is MESSINA
- One colony was in the natural harbor and another in another natural harbor.
- ZANCLE (Messana) – started soon after naxos from cumae… pirates. And chalcidians. They have
good natural harbor giving own city economic success. In land of zancle north coast, they found
community of mylae- used their land to farm.
- RHEGIUM- founded by znaclians from peloponese, city taken over by Sparta.invite to come out
and help start colony. Thye occupied strategic spots. Persisted straight through roman period.
(coin- has a picture of hare)
- Soon after the foundation of these citys….
- Year after naxos, found by Corinthians led by Archais- sons of Heraclid aka, group of Dorians
- Syracuse ended up wealthiest polis nd leading city in sicily this is because of the harbor which
was large and defensible. And partly blocked defended by Ortyia (first greek town) replacing
older sicil town. Island also had a fresh spring.
- Temple of Athena was built in ortygia. First major structure build from the 8 and the temple in
Doric order. THE TEMPLE OF ATHENA is still preserved.
- TEMPLE OFthPOLLO is standing as well in ortygia.
- Later in 6 C, linked ortygia to mainland. Here created major large agora with Olympian zeus
- Dorians also sent of colonies in eastern coast of sicily. One of these were ..
- 6 years after Syracuse. - Trotilon
- Thapsus- terrible place to live until sicil chief invited in spot 10 miles south of Syracuse
- Thus places moving around were in this region of north of Syracuse
- Site near sea without natural harbor. Large ships were off shore and small boats…
- Materials found are dorian colonies and corithina pottery
- 650 etruscan wares were found. (enjoying western and eastern trades)
- Megara destroyed and banaded until 4 C th
- Gela 688 BC by group of durians. Ppl from rhode and crete. Near sea with good agricultural land
and replacing native…. Gela was popularthrough late6 th C BC
- **note of coin in Gela… depicting river god GELAS
- After gelas was 5 cities in sicily.