march 6, 2013
Argos like corinth… caught between athens and peloponnese.
in terms of area… head of argolic gull in NE peloponnese in are acalled the argolis. This area sought
extensive occupation. fortification wall on the hill. when palace administrative seized in different areas,
later 10th C, see changes starting to appear. particularly at settlement pattern*
Apsis Larissa* 10th C settlement later grew into basis in arhaic city. agora area and most of major
monumental buildings in southerly portion of the site. through archaic and classical, argos controled
area of territory included key site at Tiyrns and Mycenae and Lerna and Asine.
in the archaic period in terms of literature, argos appear in homeric ships (hom II) (slide) catelogue of
ships because it lists all different grups of greeks and leaders and how many ships brought in the
acheans. it gives indication of what communities were large* and small* in archaic period… and also
which hero associated with polis. thus Argos-Diomedes. Tiryn grouped with argos as well.
(troezen evacuation) good at warcry… giving hoeric text and told 80 ships aka argos was powerful.
Diomedes as hero are in epics such in Il. givve wise counsil, battle charge (aphrodite wounded) wins 2
contests in funeral games (chariot and javelin contest) for patrocolus. and important fights as odysseus
desribes while traveling. he was a guy invovled in bring philoctetes from lemnose gets palladium.*he
was invovled for steal palladium (athena) it didn’t exist but represetn a habit ancient ppl had of taking
meteorite and using them as cult object. he and odyssesus… great warrior and stole it from troy. and 7
against theebe epic…. one of the 7 hereos… went to thebes and didn’t accomplish mission… and he is
included in this nuber.
the point is, he was well known and popular hero. he mirrored high status argos and power of argos in
the archaic period.
stories about archaic period are associated with the Heraclidai (dorians) and different stories associated.
fell under control of Temenos. (slide) leader of heraclidai and take argos and takes control of arog's
moving into more historical period, we come to Pheidon* may have been a king but described as a
tyrnat. F 1A. the marble puts him at year 895/4 BC. not sure when he really lived but tends towards early
7th C. he was 10th King after temnos. and presided over olympic game and top leader over all
peloponnese and encouraged spartan rivlry. Battle of Hysaie 669-8 BC.
archaelolgy discovered near full hophile panoply in grave of argos in 710-700 BC. impressive helment
with crest at the top and bronze brest and back plate. and the greives and shield is missing. eearly
example of hoplite techonolgy* might suggest, argos dominant and able to equip sldiers with newest
and best forms of arms and amour..
Hdt not too fond of him as being tyrannical. controled and drove eleans out to be in charge of olympia
Arisotle uses him as example of kings who became tyrnats* old hereditary kingship as common
ingeometric greece after heraclidi and before kingship was stopped and magistracy came in. classical
interpretation of royal behaviour and later interpretation.
the question is… what is the stuff about weights and measures? to Aigina…. what's the connection?
bassically, its location in economic activity. it was seafearing and traded. first standardized weight system created in greece in 7th C and earliest plae in western greece to mint coins. because of maritime
trade, it travel all over mediterranean. thus associats weights and coins with agina..but why phidon? it
associates with tradition of territorial power under his rule. he restored something caled the LOT OF
TEMNOS.* idea that he had expanded argive territorial control back to level whe temnos and hercalid
first arrived and took over peloponnese. in a way no connection…. but agina part of old lot of temnos.
knew it was the first standard weight established with many coins.
AEGINA STATER 600-550 BC. symobl of land turtle and reverse.. a union jack called an INCUSE (stamped)
represent sea power of aegina.
phiodon asssociated with is the iron money (oboELOI)** spits or nails with the peloponnese. used as
currency. the one thing is that iron obeloi or rods dedicated with name at santuary of hera. the heriaon.
there is a connection between phidon and obeloi in greek early currency. but dedication of heriaon is
late dedication. so.. make a story… and put in a replica of what the imaginate had been.
one of common feature of argive history is the rivlry of the spartans. constant throughout archaci and
classical history. through 6th C BC sparta dominace in peloponese. (slide) Argive and spartan Hostilities.
major contested region of argos and sparta is the area called CYNURIA a region along western coast of
argolid gaul. Cynuria inhabited as the aboriginals. since forever. both argos and sparta wanted ontrol of
territory because overlooks gulf with seeing access… spartan didn’t have that… spartan won Cynuriain
middle of 6th C. BATTLE OF CHAMPION bassically, 300 argives foutht for land. retained claim through
the roman period.
Herodotus gives long account… (slide) account of battle. he places narrative in his larger account of
croesseus fight with the persians he sent over to greece and sounded out alliance defend kingdom
against persians and fored allinance with sparta. when he was beseiged by cyrus, he discovered spartan
couldn’t help him with argos over hdt caleld the polis of cynuria.
(typical herodotuian story of combo of various histories into 1 narrative). reference to old lot of temnos.
reference to the old lot. territory that argo claimed and felt that it had conroled in distant centuries.
herodotus describes the battle in detailed ways than pausainas. argos and spartan agree with small
continent fight with 300. and whoever won got the land.
warfare was best conducted according to rules and system of engagement.
neighter side won. 2 argives and 1 spartan. 2 run back home and spartan stays… and pile trophy and
argives go back home.
ideoligcal myth explaining curiousity… argives and spartns… (still on slide) lacademonians said…. you
cant flee battlefield. argives cut hair short and no wome wear gold and covered thyuria. lacadaeoinain in
longer hair… spartan had long hari in later accounts. this is very hdtian.
viewed taken over territories and spartan and argive hostitliy continued straight into classical period.
hdt describs another series of event (slide) at SEPEIA in early 5th C BC.
sparta invovled at stat