Mar. 11, 2013
Phokis and Delphi
phokis (slide-- map)
these two areas were good with agricultural land and herd raising. the river valley was a rtravel route to
the north and at the pass of Elateia* (has a pass through up across the mountain)
basically phokis was well positioned as a nexus point. they both served diplomatic goals. Thermpolae…
was called that for the sulfur spring. this was pass over the mountain. it wasa major north south main
route. setting up defense against moving invasions by the south. it never worked because above the
pass, flat land and ambush…. into the pass. this pass was never good for defending against norhtern
attackers and thus thessalians got in. and also gauls and romans as well.
delphi was the lower slop of mt. parnassos. itself was 200ft above sea level
just west of delphi at the narrowest point of the corinthian gaul … was on the caost of the Locris.
( twined with phokis in moern schoalriship) beause there are 3 regions laid around phokis.
(epicnemidian and opuntian) these regions were associated in political action.
locrin early arrived in protogeometric period. subsequent of arrival of hokians pushed into three fringe
areas of the settlement.
spartans and dorians of magna gracia thought this little area of Doris (in the middle of them) was the
dorian homeland. imagined this is the area that the dorians came out. whether this was the case or not,
they caleld it doris (understanding that this lace was important in the corssroad region)
Tyrateus (spartan poet) in the upper valley in doris. (slide)
key thing to note in phokris and locris is region not polis** as regions, politicla roganziation was
different. particular, they structured with federation what is clalled a KOINON or ETHNE (political
association of a tribal group)
Ethne of phokis and locris emerged in the 6-5h C. bigger patter nof emergence of federation style
structured in central and northern greece. group of polis or other town formed otgehter a state
organization for handling matter of foreign policy. (same patter in classical period ex. peloposian league)
where you have autonomous polis banding together and as a group decide for a common olicyl. or more
powerful polis would say lets do this and everyone will agree or not.
advantage of phokis and locris (beoetia,) polis got to keep local auotnomy and law but in the grander
poltiical sphere of greece as a whole, these region got a bigger voice from themselves.
as a group, they had a larger voice and more resource to pull together.
phokians minting coins and building army as a group and head quearter is called a PHOKIKON*
unified group. easter locreans, they had a federal assembly that had seem to emrge in the 5th C. at
OPUS. and had an oligarchic assembly of 1000 member of annually elected magistrates. (rmemeber this
is a federation making the numbers larger)
western locreans, hada more tribal assembly. not quiet as organized but not restricted either. delphi AMPHICTYONY. (fornara 16) that this was athe first appearance of delphic Amphicyyony taking
political action. taking up supervision of delphi as a result for possession of the flame and thus of delphi.
some indication that these scared amphicyyony had supervised another cult… an older cult of Artemis in
Thermoplyae…called PYLAEAN amphictyony* . this thermoplyae in border, thessaly as a major player in
thessly is considered norhtern greece. a much larger land area than any other territory. divided into 4
poltiical districts called TETRADES: thessaliotis, hesiaeotis, pelasgiotis, phthiotis
and Periokoi (dwellers): Perrhaebia, Magnesia, Achea Phthotis, Dolopia
thessaly was dominat power through 7th C BC. it also had Ethnos style of government. where the central
greek states (beoetia… phookis ) all got the idea from. power of thessalian meant dominated the
amphicynoyny which later came in charge of delphi. this power of thesslain was in 600 BC. later in the
later hlaf of 5th C, under the control of ALEUAS THE RED, a tetrarchos… who invented the 4 regions***
formalize as administrative structure.
thessaly was political stable through the 5th C BC with incrasing amount of aristocratic power into the
polis. began to grow in power nd through 4th C, it invovle with Macedon* philip the 2nd and alex…
brought the end to the thessalian power and its polis.
* thessaly was powerful and dominant iin central state through 7th-5th C
Delphic Amphicyyony founders:
3 different mythical founders with diferent connections in changing political landscape
1. amphicyon son of Deucalion (gk version of noah's flood)
2. Akrisos son of Argos (Thessalian) which fits with the thessalian dominance of the amcphicyony
3. Pylades of Phokis- another attested founder of amphicyon.
varies myth attach ot origin is the tension between thessaly and phokis in particular. and herodotus
describe this hostility calleed CHOLOS (wrath)* 4 humor…fire hot humor… iunderstood as a deep seated
hatred and anger. thus they didn’t get along***
1 scared war 600-590
2nd sacred war 448
3rd sacred war 356-346
these rivarly over control of land and amphtiyony, played into the events of other greeks were invovled
in. thus the sacred war and later on. after the 1st sacred war, all the territory from mt parrnasos and sea
coast was made over to belong to sacntary of apollo (under cotnrol of amphicyony and non phokkians)
phookis continue assert rise to control thisarea of phokis but generally little success except for 2 breaks
(2-3 sacred wars). periods when phokieans seized delphi and its land but later booted out by rest of the
later explanation of the first sacred war had been the effor tof amphicyon from freedom of phokian
control. in reality, the first sacred was for agricultural land. reason being that dellphi was popular and
increasingly popular site. lots of greeks were visiting it and made it as a sacrifice. in order to make
sacrifice and make impressive sacrifices, you needed animals thus,,, these were ideal to local sanctuary.*
due to increased importance, needed good and large supply of animals of sheep and cattle to make
sacrifices to sell and sacrifice in the sanctuary. thus control of the plain was essential to access the herds. thus 1st sacred war was over land and land resources therefore when greeks steped in and amphyticoyn
made sure delphi had access to the plain.
all these information comes from later period. later greek periods reported back before their time.
earilest temproary textul evidence is from Herodotus. (slide) stating that, this was the earliest evidence
of amphicyonies doing anything by supervising reconstructing the temple of apollo that burnt down.
temple rebuilt afterward was interesting because it’s a window of panhellenic interest in delphi taking
phokian and thessalian control out. thus other greek polis' control (thisi sbecause of the group of ppl
who orgnized and supervised for this rebuilding)
(presentation fornara 40)
pindar's ode. (epikian ode)
indicates significance of the delphi* remoed out of phokian contorl and sesne of all of greece.
interplay between greeks from the south operating through delphi.. this is what we see in particularly
wit hthe theatre for conflict but between city-states.
for all the attention that delphi was paid by southern asian greeks who consulted oracle often, phokis
had generally did less with delphi.
phkian deidcation had to do with spoils phkians sei