Mar. 5, 2013
emperor, common, member of spouses… children, there are a quiet number of elites that we can
identify and also, individuals because of the existence of inscription in context of statue, standing… for
republic, there are less materials remains…
we don’t know what ppl look like… there are a lot of writings talking about whehter marius and sulla
identified… but theres no general agreement on it. caesar, already changes in so many contexts.
pompey the great thought that we can identify…. (best known)
gracchi brothers are worth talking about. they continued to remain so famous in later times. western
cultural tradition… them being reformers…. whenever ppl thought theres something wrong in society,
there were reformers, always went back to the gracchis said and did. wanted to avoid faith.
they remain powerful legacy.
late reformers in historical background. like a bit more radical spartacus (60 years after grachi, rebel
family tree of the Gracchi
p. cornelius scipio adopts p cornelius scipio aemilianus. (185-129 BC) and senator 146 corinth l.aemilius
paullus. foremost generous in his generation. young man adopted… takes the name adopted by his
father… p. cornelius scipio aemiianus… (185-129 BC)
daughter cornelia marries gracchus and has tiberius gracchus and gaius gracchus (163-133 and 153-121
BC). and also a daughter semprnia who marries p. cornelius scipio aemilianus* important absolute
leading figure in that generation.
the two gracchi dates abolsute leading level of roman society. there are hardly others who makes of
value in the last 100 years.
thus… absolute lead, how can they be a case that these two are known as reformers… what do they
want to change? why 'reformers'??? some of the most conservatives??? how can one explain it?
- only a consequence because it was a military goal…. #of ppl in the army needed.
thus the prof looks for parallels.. analogies… ex. Kennedy… thus, even if its from brich background,
doesnt mean they are snobs. one cant assume they only defend their own needs and wants.
plutuarch's life of Tiberius Gracchus….
penguin book: chapter 8 pg. 161… something in fact, his ounger brother told ppl afterwards… gaius
wrote in Atrium…. aware of problem, you have to see it for yourself. ex. linving in a rich house… how do
you know what's going on throuhg ht poor? Gaius went from ROme to Atriua…. (north) very fertile
because its where wine, oilve oil is all at… he travels there… looks around and looks at labours working
on vineyard or olive groves, etc and they are imported slaves (cant understand them) … out there in
countryside going on long trip and aware of it…. families of the soliders… NUMANTIA** everyone was at numantia mid 130s and got to know each other (northern spain) local
patriotism…. last holdl out of the celtiverians. rome took over large part of this penninusla after 2nd
punic war… with uprisings all the time… in the end, focused on numantia in 130s. but Rome won.
spaniards= spanish pride.
started army career as an officer. into souther france… and continue into numantia. during this time, he
thinks and then there was fighting, behaved bravely… and eventually came back to rome and time to
begin to make his mark in civic life (politics). become elected and serve country in different positions as
an aristocrat. he run for office as tribune of people.
ask ourself… discovery in atrium… no romans working in their land…. WHY turned this way? what is the
situation? we should analyze the reason here…
- rich senators buying land and using cheap slaves to till the land… : actions by the aristocracy* with
money and power taking over the land and then buy up more land and farm the land using slaves, the
work force) we have the SLAVE ECONOMY in large extent. TOLL OF MILITARY SERVICE…Rome always at
campaing…. army composed of citizens thus cant hire them to work because they are at military
campaigns. place in army was determined by property you have… those who had no property werent
accepted into army. in those days, property was in the land and that’s how it was measured. thus,
farmers… supporting you… thus needed class of romans in army… harvesting, plant second
harvest…where the actual person who owe land cant do it… thus, they are out, remains women and
children trying to take farm… and cant provide all the needs… thus, in loan… need good harvest… the
cycle goes on, so to protect it, with the money you get farms with workers. thus LAND AND DEBT are
illustrated in earlier period already. its unavoidable…because of hazard of agriculture and scarcity of
land LR 39-40. (early account from livy). people don’t necessary die of famine… but what happens is ever
diccult manage to live on land is that migratory movement* to cities and above all city of Rome growing
a lot and continues to grow through the last C BCE where agricultures not doing all that well.
tiberius' possible motives
reducing urban proletariate
fear of large number of slaves
own career (TG as demagogue)
what influened gracchus? the issue of military strenght for ROme. reason here is due to army was
recruited, you need men with proeprty. all farmers had to leave farm… don’t have property because
they are renting ppl…. and thus poor people couldn’t get into the army at all. thus, that was an issue
that gracchus wanted to change. importance of manpower** the more soldiers we have more security.
thus way to be strong nad scare enemies. every year fewer ppl above min. property… Rome didn’t use
mercenaries. at this point, Rome was using other soldiers too not just roman citizens (allies in italy**)
italy at this time, a puzzle of different units of population of cities and villages and towns with different
status. (divde and rule***) the policy still remains who are spread out. They might speak different
languages but since Rome with dominant powers, they have treaties with them, and thus part of the
treaties, as soon Rome off to war, they had to send out troops. thus half of roman soldiers off to war
were allied soiders under roman command with highet commander being from Rome. there will be
problems…and have to be resolved. Rome not running out of soldiers but not secure situation. thus
recreating potnetial for military strenght at Rome* theres more to it…thus, you turn to plutarch's book with famous passage, chapter 9 on pg. 162* tiberius
addressing ppl at Rome… (the voters of course) plutarch gives introduction… tiberius concern that
soliders had nothing to protect… concern with moral…nothing in stake for themsevels.. thus iffuse of
morals and compassion for the families who lost everything. thus inpsired reformers who looked at
unequal distirbution of land nad property and defend those who had very little.
theres another anaylsis of motives. LR 97 by Appian* writing the late republic. (avoids romantic
ingredient--- he has basic facts and analyze it) another motive presented for why gracchus embarksed
on it. comepttive freeholders and through them out of business..but at the same time, there are many
slaves… and what can one say about slaves? how serious should Romans be taking it?
what can we say about slaves?... more slaves means rebel and rise up against them??.... but why should
they be allarm? an uprise in sicily*** around 138/7 we know it went on for several years. against have a
passage LR 95 about SLAVE UPRISING. all things come together at these times… account with
introduction and the leader clearly of slaves were imported from asia minor and one rose to become
leader… all in all he became powerful and supported him. made his slaves and created an army and
were efficient and fought against several armies and rome sent against them and defeated armies and
ledaers and only 13 defeated and leader called himself EUNUS= king ANTIOCHUS* after a common
name as a king at asia minr and was defeated after only army disengaged in numantia. and send that
army to his uprising. huge humiliationg for roman soldiers and the army*
another reason had to do with the growth of cities and growth of ROme* landless romans all come to
ROme and cultivate a living.. they are citizens.. can vote… and who knows..they would vote in the future.
suddenly portion of the population (citizen power)and they may elect the wrong people* ruling elites
not like that perspective. thus if instead…. rome can become the old rome… the danger to political
structure and farm somewhere… they likely not going to vote which is elites motive?
his own carrers… things you say which is going to believe you and you are dishonests…but will make you
rise /. demagogue**
so out of the 5, which ones are real? at the end, it’s a mix of these. but 1+5? number 1 has a role but
not number 5…
thus main idea…. increase number of small holders (peasants)allow to raise a family* that’s something
he realy wanted to promote. but the question is… where could he find that land? its not this land that’s
going to be dicovered… ppl at towns… pretty mch everywhere… how do go about htat? public land**
this is the issue here… its important to realize that it’s the public land that he is claiming… landless..
issue of not restricting private ownership. gracchus was not going to limit ownerhsipof private land BUT
over the years, roman state whenever ppl village were conquered… they fought against tarentum,
samnites… roman statesconfiscate land from the defeated enemies who became allies but rome took
large track of land. thus that should be avaialbe.*** land owned by state… citizens are the state htus
why not give it to them? but the land was largely occupied by wealthy romans who found use for it
(right of stronger and wealth) sometimes, these rich individuals paid rent to the state to raise herd,
growing wheat,…. and stop paying rent because it becomes a custom. tended to forget it was public
land… authorities at rome… didn’t really keen on remembering either… ISSUE OF PUBLIC LAND= AGER
PUBLICUS* great debate now LR 94.1 where appian explains this to us. rise of latifundia (large estates
where they employed slaves) good to have slaves than lookng around the mploy ppl. these ppl are free
citziens… and thus, plants are safe while you go to army. they will never conscripted for army service.
here, appian is outspoken. embold and over time, rich landowner and purchase under pursuaision… we can image how that works… farmer trying to get by… use of publicland and growing something… and
then you have overseeer … rich guy comes saying … I want to be here… no one cares about your
this mechanism of new stage in development of roman agriculture… bigger profit namely by employing
slaves on these large estates… where in the reading find how to get most profit out of one's land?
cato lead army in spain… in those days…. well used for ECO100…. that’s what hes writing here. how to
make best profit details instruction to his fellow.. aristocrats and other members of his class… land
owners… and this is how he did it. looking at the first text.. "fortune in trade… lend money…" one thing
is trade (import and export) but that’s a risk fr shipwreck.. and land money with interest… * but its clear