Jan. 6, 2013
education is important to the constitution of the state. each state has different characteristics.
education for Aristotle is important. (educate young) and compasses whole curriculum for future
identifies this curriculum for 4 customary subject: reading writing, music, athletic, and drawing also is
important (because no everyone is going to be dealing with affairs and aristocrats) thus craftsmen is
important as well. Teachings was knowledge itself- how to think in Greek manner, involved authority
(homer is the source) and authority of the state taught young ppl how to connect when working
(commercial, state) and also taught young how to conduct themselves in leisure times.
so, early period, there was protection for young age groups. Solon, archon in Athens in 594 wrote series
of laws to reform the state and series of rule and how to conduct education and gymnasium in the city.
ex. Solon giving public morality and whats the habit of freeborn and how he is to be brought up… teens
and next age group in succession including private citizens and public manners. public and private
aspects were important.
law specified things ex. teachers important to have teachers of good character. should be trusted by
the state and specified that gym in school should be open in certain times of day and teachers not
allowed to open up schools. making sure security of the young ppl were only for daylight hours.
all the different activities these boys are engaging in outside gym and performing festival was carefully
he talks about character named CHOREGUS (chorus master--arranging directing choirs of young ppl at
festivals) comprise children, young men, and instituted was important. need money, have to be age
group which they are stable and sober, wise, in order to behave appropriately around children. these
roles of public organizers continued with nice inscription from Menandros who carried out duties.
gynaikonomos (choirs of women) agonothetes (guys in charge of running the contest at the nemea
games) athletic musical contest in honor of god apollo. liturgies public service provided by wealthy
citizens involved paying for public festivals. pay dramatic productions, musical productions and special
events at sacrifices at festivals. duty of wealth citizens for certain number of liturgies for boys.
as with the case of menandros, many of these chrous masters were in charge of managing activities of
boys in the city. this would involve selecting participants of roster for children.. involved training them,
teaching songs, dances, and make sure actual events on the day of was a success. participation was part
of the education* and learn how to be citizens.
learning not only by doing but by watching what everyone else was doing
some ppl charge of the activities: refers to events to athena (slide show) procession of boys and young
men marching into the venue with the priest. college of priest and victors from the games and ppl in
charge was the gymnasiarchos and neoi (teenager) and paidonomos (charge of boys)
another one 2nd C BC, list of rule for cult of Hermes. paidonomos (priest making sure boys) agonothetes
(supervisor of games/contest) and palaistra (wrestling school also entered)
schools in Greek world was located in gymnasia. instituted where train athletes and adults go to exercise
routines and socialize. gym= enough room to run around, play games, multiple ppl training at the same
time. helpful was supply of drinking water and bath afterward and also a shades to be out of the sun,
and place to be clothes could be set aside securely. late 5th C, agora served as gym part of the day in athens. (slide)
road used as processional route for torch runner (in athens) and it was a handy training spot for them
end of 5th C there was a stadion in center of the agora in the north end.
there was another gymnasium sacred grove of apollo called ACADEMIA. (where plato's lecture grew in
popularity) and more buildings were constructed.
there were other gymnasia at athens (exercise grounds and educational institution)
into hellenistic period, there was a much more regular design. (official buildings found all over the places
for gym) ex. pergamum (where the gym was): it was large space, surrounded by columned peristyle,
change rooms, and base of the sinks still remaining.
remaining from aikhanoum (afgahnistan) old photo due to the previous years.
if don’t shared culture, older institution takes on importance and particular focus of Greek activity* (the
way greeks conduct unique behaviour) at the gymnasium, you spend time with ppl who were just like
you. it was where you knew the next generation was going to follow your footstep of how to be 'Greek'
even as far as Afghanistan.. archaeologist in gymnasia found fragments of papyri contain texts as well…
it was a place of education (we think in literature) was taking place as well.
gymnasia was place of education for children and young men. not just literacy, sports.. but also for
culture and music. (how to participate in festivals) and hear stories of heroes ex. Heracles and Hermes.
strategies, cunning, and strength. how to be a smart greek* was the main theme.
Gymnasiarchos publicly hired/elected official responsible to governing body of citizen in a given city.
answered to them they way he managed the gym. might have duties to organize contest or taking the
agonothetes charge of athletic contest smaller school special for athletic training charge of palastria
paidotribai gym teacher how to do sports.
sphairistikoi ball game teachers
hoplomachoi drill sergeants and military exercise trainers.
paidonomoi school teachers, generally another term, grammatadidaskaloi (specifically for reading and
ktharistai chithra players would teach
psalteres music teachers or singing teachers.
(slide of vase painting)
slave keeping place clean lessons, stock supplies, primarily among them were olive oil (needed for
athletes who covered themselves and anointed themselves before starting exercise e. wrestler (to
better grip opponent). when athlete finished, they scraped oil and sweat and dust off the Stlengis (stele?)
scraper. this oil was called Gloios… collected and sold and used as medicine**
different mecidines involve this as an ingredient and ppl didn’t go gym to get healthy but also had by
products of these… gloios collectors collected an sold it or gym itself would sell it directly to doctors.
interesting inscriptions… come from 3 location: (assigned reading) Beroea, Miletus, and Te