Feb. 4, 2013
Athletics pt. 2: races
(foor trace, chariot races etc)
Stadion- oldest race and first at Olympia.
(slide show the 15 winners)
in terms of single race, milliennium worth from 8th C - 4th C AD.
famous first victor was Coroebus of Elis (native at Olympia) and the only contest at the first 13
olympiad was the Stadion race. (running the stadion race)
hint at ways put together ancient histoyr…
14th oympiad, a double race was added.
15th Olympiad, long foot race was added.
stadion was the venue
distance was however long partciular physcia stadion was.
olympic stadion was 192 m
Stadion= 600 feet, PODES*
however long regional stadion distance measure, divided up into 600 feet.
tradition at Olympia, Hercales self measured the distance of stadion of his own foot length.
olympiad stadion was personally measured to greek hereo heracles
Gramme+ line (starting line)
Hysplex or Balbis= a rope variation guessed that there was a post and dropped the gate. slightly
different system for each olympic games
terma= end/boundary/goal depending on actual finish line, or goal in terms of where you were
throwing javelin or discus… appplied with this term
telos= finish end of a race
bater= thresholdmark threshold started running from, mark where you ended…. stone threshold laid in
dirt of track.
kampter= goal often had sockets… towards the kampter, a post 5ft high, and runnning towards it to
makr the finish line or about to enter a turn. vase paining depicts a kampter. its assumed each runner
had their own post to turn around. (because it wwouldve been dangerous all running at one post).
thus, in vase, it just shows one, but actually its for each runner.
nyssa= turning post another word for kampter
inscription from Delphi, (slide show) it relates to accounts and legder book for pairs made for stadium
delphi. differetn people reparied statdium…. paid him to repair or retool the threshold, or the batre. (5
staters), 20 staters for the guy who repair stone track, (8 stater) to swept lane and regrade the track
bringing in new surface material. 36 kampres were brought and in place. this is another indication that
there were kamptres for each length at each ends. earliest running race was called a STADION because runner ran the length of the stadion.
runners were called STADIODROMOI stadion+ dromos (runner)
DIAULOUS double length. or double channel. apply to musical instrument or running 2 length of the
stadion. ran end of the stadion and run back to starting line.
15th Olympiad, added DOLICHOS long course, long race. 12 stadion lengths. Heron (mathmatician)
measured 12 for the dolichos.
DOLICHODROMOI runners. up and down truning around post each end until compelteed the 12 lines
back and fourth.
in terms of rules and techniques, some of the techniques on vases…. looking back, and running posture,
we know there were false starts thanks to Herodotus and they were punished.* he recorded while making
up conversation with general debated when to start battle. when to start battle…. but false started in
running race would feel the lash of the umpire. picture of umpire on pankrites.. deliberate beating and
similar kind of things would happen.
references from Pausanius, heats were run* he says relating to foot race at olympia, runners grouped in
random lottery grouped in heats and victors each heat ran for final** crowned in footrace meant they
ran 2 races. if there are 18 heats and 18 ppl each meant there are a lot of competitor* system of heat
also meant single city had more than one runner.** so, geographer Strabo refers city of Kroton who
had a lot of atheletes came to compete. ex. 7 runners in the finals who were kortonians. something
really good, its more healthy than kroton. they had a lot of victors. recrd for long jump came from
kroton. pig producers of atheltes*
foot race carried on in armour called HOPLITODROMOS* solider field of battle a breastplate, protector,
helmet, grieves, carried shielld. these runners wore helmets and greives and shield. sheidl was called
Hopli* Scholias tells us double running had crest of feather on the helmet.
there were longer length at nemea, 4 lengths. one part of translation was the Hoplitos…. difficult courses
because they ran so many length of the track in Plataea and carried extra heavy sheild. meaning,
boeotians carried actual full sheild.
other kinds of races. particular the torch race* connected to ritual and religious festivals.* conducted at
night and there werent not present at big panhellenic hfestivals as a contest. played a part in festivals
or rituals. torch race was (Y). torch race was called LAMPAS or LAMPADEDROMIA** 'light race'
actually 5 different torch race held at Athens. herodotus tells us about one of them, held for god Pan.
instituted after famous long distance Philippides at battle of marathon. as crossing range of mt hills,
encountered pan. he called out phil's name, sacred grove and asked why no pay attention to pan. so,
phil delivered knews of victory and ps, pay more attention to pan. thus instittued torch race in the
sancutary of pan located bottom of acropolis. eversince, annual sacrifice and a torch race to him.
another torch race to plato's republic. scorates speaking talking about torch race to goddess BENDIS* in
thrace. arrived in city and new festival was instituted in her honor. socrates and friends went in for
festivities. in later section, theres a torch lit race on horseback* torch race ocured in evening and
having torch race on horseback was exceptional…. they were horse raisers… and also that there were
different ways of conduct this race. in a relay. waiting at station and pass the torch like relay race.
another ref from Alex at Susa, celebrated and held gymnastic for father. greeks went, religious festival
worthy of speical celebration hold a torch race. they were usually ran by young men who ran them. since these were festivals, conducted under
supervision publicly hired, elected officials such as guy whos in charge of gymnasium. gym magistrates
were traninig these youths and supplying torches they would use. training for torch was intense.
running, carrying lit torch was not the safest… sometimes torch race was that…. race and runners
competed with one another. dozens of youth cluster huddle with lit torch. had handguard protected
from flame liquid…. etc. and because they were naked, boldily harm for sure. sometimes race
competed together or relay. different kinds of races. required torch to remain lit. if ran out, the entire
team or individul were out of the competition. Pasuanius describes this. ex. Prometheus' honor… in
Athens. AKADEMIA -- academy of plato's school started out as gymnaiusm. torch lit at alter of
prometheus and run into the city. contest is the test is to keep torch lit (breeze cant blow it out) if
torch first runner goes out… bye bye.. torch all go out no one is the winner. only if torch was lit.
in Athens, described organization describing the torch race. it was also boys who ran as well. 161 BC, told
that lampas of the boys palaistra (wrestling ground). archon was a magistrate LAMPADARCHON*
responsibility of training kids to do something. (sports coach) and these are officials hired or elected by the
city responsible to train young men and boys how to run torch race safely and conduct the relay.
athne was large to have many competitiors, schols were contributing to public festivals. not just priest who
were in charge of the race.
also longer idtance running by people in antiquit. not sport but connection to sport. same phillepdes
encouraged the torch race to pan was described as HEMERODROMOI* (day runner) long distance
running. hemerodromoi were professional runners worked in the state service, worked for kings. not
atheltes but worth noting that greeks didn’t limit conception of running as stadion short run races.
these day runners often ran in service of as couriers. thus, phillipedes. hemerodromoi serice of perisan
empire as courirer as postal serice connecting near east and hemerodromoi would carry messages for
people. idea of people vary long distance in antiquity was in place-not aprt in atheneltic race.