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feb. 25, 2013- 321.docx

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Jacqueline Brunning

Lecture #12: Musical Competitions A ‘bard,’ meaning poet comes from the Greek aoidos. Musical competitions are a important part of festivals as well as funerary games. Odyssey Book 8 -Interesting description of a bard. There are 2 stories, and the bards were concerned with divine subject matter. Shows that it is the muses who inspire the bards song choices. *Both Homeric epics begin with a request of the muses for divine skill Tells us that the muses choose their own shepherd to be a bard. They can put truths or lies into their mouths. -Game and idea: we cant certainly tell what is true -Holds audience captivation Songs and singing are thus potentially divine revelation and that is why they are so important. Q: Who are the 9 muses? They are patronesses to poets and all intellectual writers, thus also inspiring historians and their writings Orality- Oral Tradition Greek culture was predominantly oral. Things were not necessarily written down, which is why sources are from a later date. Therefore, in Homeric poems and epic cycles, variations can occur and we see this in different translations Like the athletic contests, the musical world also had its own heroes: 1. Orpheus: He is of Thrace, and he was able to charge songs with a divine power and with this he could control nature. This even allowed him to influence the gods. We see him in a number of stories, for instance he and his wife Eurydice vs. Hades. He was killed by the Maenads, but his head did not die and it floated to Lesbos still singing and because of this it is said that he taught there. 2. Musaeus: Of Athens, and his name is related to the muses, and it is where we get the word for museum, musaeum. 3. Linus: Of Antissa, Lesbos and he was a mythical singer and composer. Believed to have invented the threnos ‘dirge’ which is a song of lamentation. Said to be killed by Apollo because he sang just as well as the god. Competitions were also a place to learn from one another th Terpander, of Antissa dates to the early 7 C BCE, and he was a player of the Cithara. He was head of a professional guild, and he apparently stopped a war by playing the cithara or auloi pipes. Credited with inventing the 7 stringed cithara and the 7 citharodic nomoi, meaning 7 in total which competitors had to master all 7 nomoi, which are set songs- example, Pythikos nomos. There was a nomos for every occasion, therefore there seems to be quite the range of them.  Citharodos  Carnea at Sparta, 676/5 BC Instruments Lyra: Signifies a stringed instrument that was wither strung o
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