Mar. 11, 2013
idea that music wasn’t limited to just competitive events and professional musicians but aan aspect of
towards these professional training… today's focus is professional musicians.
before talking about ways artists organized, we have to talk about growth of profesional itself.
how do we go from amature and instrumentalist acrhaic period to mostly professional ones?
Professionas in archaic and classical period
homer's aoidoi (traveling bards)
ibycus and anacreon at the courst of poylcrates,, yrant of samos (attached to tyrants to make a
living) they left home cities and traveled to samos. this considered as form of professional
commissioned poetry: the epinicians of pindar and bacchylides (lyric poets wrote victory songs
as well as lyric genres.) there were commissioned by rich and powerful indiciuals to compose
these other forms of lyrics and poetry. making a living out of these….
auletrides (flute girls) professional musicians.
metic auletes in athens (aulous players) were professional musician s were nothing new in
athens. these accompanied dramatic competition in theatre of dioonysis were metic and
professional musicians for at least since of classicla period. travelled to athens in order to make
their living by accompnaying dramatic chrouss.
there is a trend in the direction of professionalization at the end of 5-4th C. why was this
happening?part of the reason has to do with change of music in insturment, techqniue, styles itself.
these changes made music more complex enoucraging professionalized and leaing amatuers behind.
most important event is the NEW MUSIC
- timotheos of miletus
- philoxenus of Cythera
-Euripides the tragedian
thecnical developments of instruments
changes in muscial style and techniques
the rise of the virtuouso instrumentalist
fragments of music survive (pieces of comedy, lyrical genres) we can still see meter and language.
some archaelogical evidence survives in the form of auloi. few msucial fragments have been found in
ancient greece. some of the chagnes occuring in the construction of instruments. this begun with the
greek mode_ system of tranditional scale to traditional greek system. (dorian, lydian mode… etc) early
on, when they wanted to play, he would have a set of aouloi. each set would be premanufacture to be
played in a particular mode. position of the hoels (because these are pipes). ex. dorian mode, he would
take the auloi for the dorian mode and whole piece is played with whole mode. but thn… innovation came.. invention was a bracket (made of bronze) went over aulois pipe. thus, you
make extra holes and the bronze brakey could be twisted internal tube and covver and uncover certain
holes. meaning that you can easily by twisting outer bracket go from one scale to another. thus, you can
use just one auloi to swtich one mode from another.*
this allowed modulation of scales that plato disliked. there were advances in the cithra (philoxenus) who
added another string to the cithra. but also technique changed. again, changed with the aulos first.
instead of playing a steady poem,there seems to be more of a encouragement for modulating the tone.
(vibrating the tone up and down, slurring up or down ) adding decoration to each note* variations to
add some kind of fancy decoration to the melody.
finally, change in style of performance. (palto disliked) trend towards theatrical performance… meaning
they start ato mimick and act out what they were playing. while playing the instrument, they would
dance and act it out**
there are two toehr developments so called new music
1) Plato gives a clue… (slide) a lot of things he says…. the fact that attacks an exclude from dieal
education and musical culture… this was exactly what was happening. what he was saying is that the
voice and instrument should go hand in hand. this seem to be tranditional way of playign instrument.
auloi lay the same note as chorus members.. parallel with vocal meolody perhaps? person singing and
accompnaying… idea that cirthra setep and step in terms of rhytm and meolody. you follow the voice on
the instrument. but new music broke this rule. chorus osing one thing… the auloi would elbaorate and
use variations… melody and vocal doesn’t match step by step.
(idea of ethos… consistency avoid modulation) emotional and moral uqalities… that’s why these new
music were seen as a dnager.
has to do with greek language. ancient greek had…. a certain natural way in which voice rise and fall as
you speak. in greek there are rise and falls and pitch… inherent to the language… so in another word, a
language had a melody built in already. thus, it looks like in traditional greek music, when lyric poet or
any poet would compose a song, he would base the melody and song and instrument and base of
natural flow of the text he would be working with. (this already bhad a basic tone/meolody within) you
left natural language guide you. and what's happening here, again breaking this rule* where the melody
that survives contradict in many places of tonal melody of the text itself.*
there are a lot of things going on on the contruction of insturments of techniques used and allthese
made musical performances much more complicated and much more difficult. as a result, you had to
work hard and become professional… a new difficult complex kind of music. most amature…. training
simply couldn’t do it. at the same time, inspite of the innovation, most popel liked itbecause they liked
seeing these and giving something new and give a new melody…. on the aulos or on the cithra.
many of the innovation started with the aulos. the aulois professionals were there for a long time…
auloids became professionalized. and croseed over into other types of music… ex. timotheos…
innnovator within the feidl of dithraymb. euripides as a tragedian.
Profesionalized of music2: the music indutrsy
spread of drama most of 5th C, tehatre remianed purely an athenian institution. end of
classicla and throughout hllnnesitic spread and extremely popular all over greek world. this increased demand for msicians. partyl beause drama was one of the most musicians to perform
drama. you need the trageic, sayre poet, trainiers, instrumental accompanies, a whole set of
costume, set desgienrs etc. needed professional to put on a theatrical play. atheninaform of
theatre demanded for musicans and artists
new festivals from conquest of alex, greek and greek culture spread outside of mainland nad
agean island to large chunk of mediteranean world. wit hthe spread was the spread of festivals
and greek music. establishment of many festivals, many wit musical event increased the
demand for musicians.* increased opportunities for their performances. city states to larger
hellenistic kings and entertainment ptolmeises.. used entertainment for own political
advancement and self promotions. kings actively promoted musicians. not only do they
establish new religious festiavslas but one events inviting greeks all over the wrold. ex. alex
conquest of persia, he wins battle, he conqers new area, and almost these cases, celebrates and
organied one time festivals including gagme nad musical games. most famously for his weddding,
he invites professional musicians over the world nad this tradition continue with mutliple
successions. historica factors and internal facotrs both encourage professionals and leave
amatueres. in order to keep up and technical requriements….
the TECHNITAI (technites) you had to become a craftsman of music. train nad practice of this
craft, trade of music. from at least time of aristotle in 4th C, term for professional musicians
were the TEHCNITAI*
this doesn’t menat hat these profesiosnal s are organied in guild, unions, corporation. fo rthis,..