Mar. 12, 2013
1. learning from Tiberius' defeat
2. A wider program of reform
3. The various classes/group in Roman society
4. The End
Gaius learned from his brother's defeat. led him to adopt wider program of reform/change. he had more
points and issues on his agenda. this meant that he addressed the interest of more groups in Roman
society. The main thing there was, there were little land, and couldn’t support themselves.
how he then device the program? planning and thinking how to create a larger following for himself.
1. Agrarian Commission continues (for the landless)
2. pushed for more colonies (landless)
3. extortion juries (roman knights, EQUITES=equestrian)* wedge
4. military equipments (citizens)
5. reduced grain prices (for the population of Rome)
There are other groups (roman knights, citizens, etc) to assist. led to free grain in Rome and free citizen.
this is a wider political program. one group which we know well that’s not mentioned is the Senators…
because they benefit and already had everything. senators were out on campaign and gaining victories…
and thus, they shouldn’t mind. its not quite that easy because it antagonizes some senators. Gaius
Gracchus was a senator himself. Some senators are now finding this quite troublesome not just general
idea about giving up land, reducing price, etc. but something in particular that really worried them and
drove a wedge into the upper class into the rich members of society..thus the wedge issue was the
EXTORTION JURIES* because governors in Roman society were always senators. All political positions
and tasks are held by senators. (from the bottom… you rise the ladder and becoming the senate).
By definition, those who handle governorships, they are senators. they rest of upper class, are roman
knights. This is creating more of a division since suddenly provincials complain about having the badly
treated by the roman government (extorted money from them). He was corrupt and the phenomenon
was the same. courageous person in the province, and he travels to Rome and complains…. and there
will be a trial with witness, someone speaking on behalf, and defend the accused governor. The one
speak on behalf of provincials… just because no authority and train to speak well, are equestrians. this
worries senators and try to explain why this would be?
the wedge between senators and roman knights, remember from last class, its not first time its been
established. the early instance was the second punic war.
218 BC* when assembly passed a law (CLAUDIAN LAW*) which concerned ownership of large ships.
senators are suppose to be doing smaller trades, and not really large scale exports to gaul. (ex wine to
gaul lucretive) this was because among many senators, attempt to preserve status quo by the upper
class. they were against allowing some individuals in the highest ranks of society to suddenly become
influential because of money and gains they made in commerce* it should be more stable process
where you just farm and sell products… this is predictable event but enormous profits coiuld be
obtained through oceans shouldn’t be for senators because idea was ppl shouldn’t worry about these
things* senates should just focus on political business and roman state.* senates wouldn’t be able to
focus on deicison makigs from state matters. illuminating passage from Cicero, summarize well the idea behind LR 165. Gentlemen (Senators). well
known attitudes, socially degrading, regards to trade and which ones considered as gentlemen and
vulgar… this passage is important for paid work, which today is a normal thing* work is essential. for
roman senator, he doesn't work. never works. doesn’t mean they are not busy, but never agreed that
they were actually 'working' but just do what a senator would do…. meeting clients, making promises,
write letters, show you are popular, networking… etc. but this is NOT WORK. (different approach)
vulgar merchants relationships, buying from them, trades with craftsmen's. trades from small scale…
important large quantities. thus, Cicero shows respect for knights* this is noticeable.
Cicero's father was a roman knight and came from a equestrian family. more about these split between
senators and equestrians…. it can be found in LR 96 (pg. 250). our period of history. equestrian order…
which resulted in the war with the allies… showing brief account of these events. also pinpoints the
violent division of equestrian order and judiciary laws. conflict… shouldve enabled and come to an
agreement. how did romans really manage their provinces? (at this point rome was like an epmpire)
that needs many tasks and obligations. 134 BC, thus by the time tiberius gracchus came onto the stage,
there were 6 provinces* (sicily, sardinia+ Corsica, HispaniaUlterior.Citerior (province), macedonia, africa)
these were the 6 provinces. how did it work? they were govenred and ruled by roma gvernor (senatro)*
and he had some troops at the disposal. knew in advance there would be fights, peaceful or not
peaceful period. a possibility of triumph or success or defeat… military encounters… there might be
booty or not. mainly provinces were there in order to be taxed by roman authority/states*** Taxing
provinces who lived were overwhelming subjects.* most individuals were citizens and paid taxes.
thus, how does Rome state organized these collection of the taxes? This was the issue and needed a
solution. troops going to be there… was it soliders? public contracts would knock on different houses to
collect taxes. so what's a public contract? contract means you are basically caling for private enterprise
to step in*
like cicero, demenaing to work… despise ppl who work for salary… this was the problem… because
Rome didn’t have ppp working for sates(federal, provinal, municiple). beaurocracy…this was clear how it
works today but in roman soceity, you need skills to carry out these things. ex. collect taxes and aware
of what the law says, goodd at math, organization skils, keep records, etc. in this society, who were
those individulas who had those skills? those who had skills, training, education to be part of tax
gathering operations were the citizens… shared the ideas with cicero… they too were not so keen to be
hired by someone to go out and do that for money as a job. citizens were not interested in doing this.
thus roman state couldn’t create civil service/beaurcracy. too few had training, those who had training
didn’t want to. this meant, you had to organize tax collections. companies, well… equestrians did it for
their own profit. simply sign contract with state and worked on their own, in terms of employing other
trained slaves, freedmen, etc. * thus, they need to work for equestrians as a company. it’s the way in
which the roman provinces ran. this kind of building on contracts, its something which Is done by roman
knights who pooled the resources and bits. here, it was a concessions* tax collection must make a profit.
that’s where it becomes tricky because provincials are in the mercy of the collectors***
door to door and collect the tax. here, it became obvious that the collection was done in a way which
extorted money than what was required by the provincial****
governor(with troops) tax collectors(prey on the subjects) subjects
governor highest authority, tax collect to carry out business of getting out money from subjects. then
you have a situation where tax collectors collect too much… hence what does the governors do?
(subjects can bring issue to extortion courts). once equestrians gain upper hand in extortion courts… this
gave tax collectors free ranks in the city. if tax collectors not allowed to widely exaggerate demands of
subjects, equestrians can protest the governor. these courts in Rome were in large extent political. it was a practise in Rome to charge political opponents. there were professional judges either…
equestrians… without an particular judicial training. tax collectors able to at the point where extortion
courts consists of equestrians. tax collectors able to exert pressure towards the governor because
extortion court where you have equestrians. this situation, where you have decent governor prevent tax
collector to prevent collecting too much taxes… honest governor ends up with false extortion where
equestrians judge him… this means that those who pay for it are the subjects… who of course, they are
suppose to pay in tax but there should be a limit… but situation where private companies were able to
extract more than the reasonable amount because they can exert pressure on the governor. because if
governor don't do what tax collectors say, the extortion courts… they would make him the bad guy.
equestrians… we changed the composition to the extortion court… because you can be sure there will
be good business for you because governors.. they will be hesitant to stop you because one away
another, governor may end up in front of the extortion court. (loss wealth, shame, threat to their career)
(part of the republic where emperor took entire role because of the corrupted equestrians)
taxation and LR 137, a brief passage concerning the religious land. it deals with precisely and find out
extract title from this place or not. in this case, it went to the consul and the senate… by the book but
sometimes it wasn’t done for years because you needed to complain. these tax collectors were known
as the PUBLICANS* (mentioned in the new testament). For the community. for the state in this case.
gracchus' plan was this… a much broader alliance and catering to many groups but not nearly a large
group of senators who realized their posiiton in province was difficult. giving all that money for landless,
is useless and why should they help? this was their attitude creating an opposition for him. however, to
rely on larger suport, he was re-elected** to continue with his reform. then he came up with the idea of
founding the colonies* not just land in italy itself but land fhoudn elsewhere and plan to create colonies
in north africa (old territory of carthage) he was away fro a period of 2 month and when he came back
to rome, situation changed compeletely and he failed to be re-elected for the second time. at that point,
the agarian commission did function (thus he didn’t lose entirely) but not tribune of the people. because
he was still in office but elections well before his term eneded, and he would then lose his power. thus
the situaiton became criical in rome (gracchus folllowers… disappointed) but aslo senate f