Mar. 13, 2013
- alex the great
- hellenism= greek culture GREEKNESS idea of explicitly adopting greek culture and particular asepct of
greek culture hanging onto homeland and identity
held on to what they knew and staying same, forming community and building life on the south.
one of these was the gymnasium. aka having athenletic contest and festival
this is the background of the greco-roman period. as Greek world expanded, and also going into egtpy
and inland of asia minor, there is an explosion of atheletic games and religious festivals.
ther eare a lot of new games
Iso-olympian (iso= euqall) this means that these games were held at the same status as the orignal
olympian.. panhellenic.. were invited to come and prizes like those at the games and held every 4 years
and have simialr events. these games are known from inscriptions.
original = pythia 'in delphi'
- asia minor:
- the aegean
- greece/north greece
these are cities of inscriptions and texts to have pythiai games at them. there are a lot in sia minor (look
at the slide)
games at deliphi increasing as pythia in delphi because contest had same name for the honor of apollo.
there are exmaples of new games during hellenisitc period
they have different origin than origin stephantic games
Ptolemaia* festival establsiehd 282 by ptlolemy II philodelphos. (father was alex's general who died in
282) thus II instituted the grand celebration of honor of dead father deiefed as a god. part of this
rational was to emphasize that he was heir and successor f his father, glory, welath, fame, power,
authority his father established was continuing. he emphasized his succession. II was the high point and
most powerful and successful king.
associated with the ptolemaia ruler cult (religious rituals and special preisthood and festivals set in place
to venerate decesased and his family) this was a way yto tie the new macedonians. a way to connect the
king back to egtpyian tradition (deiefeid pharoah) son crowned as pharohs… and take on all the power
and religious importance of traditioanl egtypian pharoh. solidyfying. when queen Herenike dies, she added as a deity and celebrated.
festival was held in alexandria. we know that there were theorois from all over. they came attend the
games. as of 279 (year queen died) the game was PENTETERIC, held 4 years. each invitiation sent out
included subjects and ppl who they ruled and autonomous greek city states and semi autonomous
groups. attending the tolemaia was not the same as the original classical games. this was keeping home
city in the good book for the ptolemies. thus they go there. if you could go to them and say, we have
good record of attending and make offering, contribute to ruler cult, please treat us lieneitnly and
attend as a diplomatic activity (that took place uslly in this period)
this continue until 211-210. the festival was considered ISO-OLYMPIAN (musical, atheletic equestiran
from CALLIXINUS (a writer in the 270s and described the ptomeai that he witnessed it) (slide)
this guy describes the grand procession introduce the ptolemai festival. its ptolmei II and the description
of the royal headquarter which is extremely grand and describes the progcression pass thoruhg
alexandria and the stadium where there are a lot of pl who can watch it.
image of the king and images of the gods.. and a lot of bits of treasure…. dioynysiac procession.. number
of ppl who dressed up as satyr and personficication. she was personfication of having the game every 4
yers. dressed in characters.
after this group, there are series of wagon. aka floats (decorated with ppl dressed elaborately.. priests,
worshipers and huge arade of treasures and more floats.. exotic animals)
it’s a massive procession. its not just trainers but this is a procession has atheletes and musicians but
basically it’s a grand spectacle to ptolemy wealth and as envoys of other kingdoms and all the power on
display. a huge promotion for potlmey's power.
this was celebrated places outside egtpy with political loyalty. not just in alexandria. it was held on delos
and league of islanders. (slide) Ptolemaia and poltiics.
LEAGUE of ISLANDERS semi autonomous. part of the ptolmaic oversea territories but because loyal
and friendly, they had fair measure of their own measures and contorl. ptolemey had a powerful navy…
thus wanted to be on their sde(the tyomeis)
issued by league of islanders, announcing acceptance of ptolemai. agreeing and recognizing the festivals.
mentioned about what was invovled. worth noting is that the guy invovled was the PHILOCLES king of
Sidoniann and Bacchon (guy charge of island)
ptolemiy inherited lnad by his father… and told it’s a gymnasitc musical contest equal to olympian
games….etc (read the slide)
Athens celebrated the ptlomeai festival at athens in 224 and continued to 86BC.
reason for athenians joning because 220 BC, athens was under pressure from philip the 5th king of
macedon and coalition of greek state on mainland >.< ptolmey III steped in giving some help. promised
to protect athens. so in 224, athenian estalbished honors to thank pttolemy. thus, created 13th tribe
called the PTOLEMAIS* instiuted new priests for him and his wife. gymnasiarchos Theophrastos createsd
new game called Ohtomaiai. this festival soon important in atheinain calendar. quickly became top level
fesitval at athens. in 224 same year, ptolmty donated money and described by paus (slide) near market
place and near agora… had various lecture hall and becmae major center for philosphy. ptolmey giving
athens useful institutions as well as instiutiton giving honors. another festival started around this time was the SOTERIA. it started because of pressure from outside
groups. 280 BC the gauls swpt down out of thrace and norther greece and foredd their way of
thermoplaye… not before gauls got into delphi and sacked it. based on number of treasuries and
dedications.. there were a lot of loots of gauls appealing. victory driving them out of greece was
immideatelyy cmmemorated and insituttion of new festival by the amphicyonic league (state running
delphi) was called the SOTERIA (safety or salvation) thus the festival to commemorate their salvation
form the gaul. this was honor for APOLLO and Zues Soter (savioru) the gods who helped eal with the
athnes which had contirnbuted soliders to the war seemed to invovle in the very start (sendin theroiro)
one of those festivals where athenians Synodoi of Dionysian technitai… with competition (becauesisthia
and nemea were invoeld as well) inscription relating to later soteria require 60 technitai including 3
teams for tragedy performance nd 3 team for comedy performance. this was a major attraction for
profressional arirsts of dionysus.
in asia minor… (slide) festival started late 3rd century for artemis leukophryene… (white brow)
she was a goddess in meander river. a temple there.. but told that year 221-220, (calnderar ran summer
to summer or spring to spring) there wasa epiphny artemis L. appeared to the priestess Aristo. decided
they needed to do something.. because she appeared. thus sent off delphi oracle for advice and what
they needed to do for this epiphony. thus, oracled stated that tey needed to have festivals for her. local
festival of honor of ogddess was now to be divinely appointed occasion (because she asked for it) and
send to neighobor and ackonwooedlge the city and was sacred and not to be attacked.
this first attempt was unsuccessful. (in the decree it was unsccessful)
208 BC tried again. so built resources and made a second much much larger attempt. they started
buildling a large temple to the goddess and eneded up fourth largest iionic temple in asia minor.
changed the oraganization and increased the front porch. the main decorative frieze was a war of the
amazon* at the top picture (slide,) it’s a frieze and ionic colmn.
magnesians offered monetary awards for outside participants and sent off envoys to all greek
cities..asking different city recognize as iso-pythian and recognize city of territory be holy and asylia-