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Chapter 7

Notes for Chapter 7

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Department
Classics
Course Code
CLA204H1
Professor
James Lynd

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CLA Chapter 7 Male Olympians - Specialize in male activites - > Zeus ruled the family and all humankind because males did in human society. - > The underworld family was a mirror imagine of the upper so Hades was king of Death. - > Higher knowledge was only open to males and Apollo guided them. - > Poseidon caused the devastating storms that afflicted Greek sailors, who were al- ways male. - > Only males were smiths and warriors and Hephaestus and Ares reflected that. - > Hermes helped traveling merchants. Apollo the Far-Darter, God of Prophecy - His historical and name origins are unknown - Also called Phoebus - Many think hiscult came from Asia Minor because he is called Lycian. - > Lycian could mean wolflike aswell, perhaps because at an early stage he protected shepards from wolves or had some connection with wolves. - This cult has taken on associations with far north: - > In winter he swelled among Hyperboreans men beyond the north wind. - Not mentioned on Linear B tablets - But already established as a great God by the time of the alphabet - Mother is Leto, a Titan. - Artemis, Leto and Apollo form a divine family but in origin had nothing to do with each other - Twins are ready to defend her honor. - In classical period Apollo is sometimes called a sun-god (and artemis was thought to represent dark and moon) but in origin had nothing to with it. - Although an archer-god he does not represent hunters. - > his arrows are shafts of disease - - > lIliad - dangerous god of plague - Lord of Mice One story: CLA Chapter 7 - Greeks capture daughter of C's, A trojan priest of apollo and gave her as booty to Agamemnon. Dad asks for her back, king refuses. So dad prays to Apollo. Apollo took revenge on the camp and cause them to be die of disease Birth of Apollo on Delos - One of largest homeric hymns is dedicated to Apollo. - Split into two songs. - First song: To the Delian Apollo may have been composed in 7th century bcd - > describes how Apollo was born, his parentage, and the greatness of his power. - The second song: To the Delphian Apollo is a later composition - > tells about the founding of Apollos oracle at Delphi - Hymn tells how Leto (Daughter of Coeus and Phoebe) was a mistress of Zeus - > She was persecuted by Hera and when she was pregnant and came to term, Hera decreed that she could not have her child on land that sees light of day - > She wandered looking for a place and finally came to Delos (Clear, bright) and near- by Ortygia (Quail Island) - - > they were exempt because the sometimes bobbed below sea level and hence not seeing the light of day. - Apollo was born on Delos, Artemis on Ortygia - However, some accounts say that Artemis was born first and helped Apollos birth - Apollo is to the olympians what an oral poet is to a human - Oral singer bears aristocratic culture - Therefore Apollo became leader of greek Aristoi Many stories about Apollos skill with lyre: - the Satyr Marsyas challenged apollo to a musical contest - Apollo won and flayed the satyr alive - Established his oracle in boetia in a spring called Telphusa (named after nymph who dwells inside) - Nymph feared competition and urged Apollo to move to the slopes of Parnassus - The place is dragon infested - Apollo slayed female dragon Python - He takes revenge on the nymph buy burying her beneath a cliff and building a shrine to himself upon itCLA Chapter 7 - Apollo, who wants to get priests for his temple at delphi, disguises himself as a dolphin and goes out to sea - > hops on to a cretan ship and steers it to Crisa, the nearest costal village to Delphi. - > There he reveals himself as a handsome young man in his prime - > Makes them priests at his temple. - Delphi derived from Delphis Dolphin The form in which the god appeared to the sailors Other version: - After having killed the dragon Apollo had to be cleared of the miasma. - > So he travelled to the Valley of Temp in thessaly at the foot of towring Mount Olym - pus, where he was ritually cleansed - > Because apollo was himself cleansed of miasma he could free others from it too. - Many made a pilgrimage because of this - Every eight years the Delphians celebrated the death of
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