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CLA204H1 (63)
James Lynd (13)
Chapter 13

Notes for Chapter 13

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University of Toronto St. George
James Lynd

- because legends are attached to the names of men and women who really lived, their stories tend to be local, focussed on a specific place or territory - > Greek Bronze age left many remains on the Argive Plain - - > also rich in myth - E.g. Mycenae - > almost the only large sculpture to survive from the Bronze Age: two lions rampant on either side of a Minoan column loom over the great entranceway, framed by enormous stones - Around the citadel are nine beehive tombs, domes contracts underground to house the remains of mycenaean kings. - Treasury of Atreus has the largest dome ever constructed (until romans built pantheon fifteen hundred years later) - Graves contained an enormous quantity of golden objects of extraordinary quality - In bronze age, Mycenae was a populous center of wealth and power counded by Perseus - Ten miles south is Tiryns - > surrounded by amazing walls of immense stones carefully fitted together - > near the sea and may have been a port that served Mycenae - Perseus was king of Tiryns when he founded Mycenae - > Herc, his grandson lived in Tiryns most of his career - Argos was principle settlement of the argive plain in the classical period - > not important in Bronze Age Io and Her Descendants The Wanderings of Io - Mother is Melia, nymph of an ash tree and Oceanid (Daughter of Oceanus and Tethys) - Dad is Inches, god of the river that flows through argive plain - > they had two sons and Io, ancestor of the three great dynasties: The house of Argos, Thebes and Crete Best known version: - Zeus lusted after Io, a priestess of Hera - Zeus surrounded her with a mist and within it had his way with her - Hera, seeing a mysterious cloud on a sunny day, came to investigate. - Zeus barely had time to disguise his cheating and changed Io into a cow - Hera not deceived, ask for animal as a gift - Zeus reluctantly gave in - Hera tethered cow to an olive tree in a grove near Mycenae - To keep her away from Zeus, sent monster argus, child of Gaea who had a hundred eyes and never slept - Zeus sent Hermes but at first he couldn’t get past Argus’ watch; while some eyes slept, others were awake - Then, hermes disguised as a shepherd, sang a lullaby and all the eyes closed - Then cut his head off - > became known as Aregeiphontes ‘argus killer’ - > Hera placed Argus’ eyes in the tail of peacock, her favorite bird - Io free, but Hera tormented her - Io stung constantly and wandered through Greece to the northwest - > Ionian Sea and Ithaca are named after her - Wandered to Pindus Range to Macedonia - through Thrace to the straits that divide Europe from Asia (later called Cow crossing - After wandering through Scythe north of the Black sea she ended up in Caucasus Mountains at the eastern end of black sea - There she found Prometheus - He predicts her future wanderings - He says that in Egypt she will regain her human form after Zeus touches her with his hands - She will then be pregnant by Epaphus ‘he who has been touched’ future king of Egypt - Hercules will descend from her in 13th century and set Prometheus free - Story of Io has same general structure of Proetus: - A god causes Io to change into a cow, who wanders the world, persecuted; Proetids driven insane by a god, think they are cows, and wander the hills. - In some versions Hera, not Dionysus, transformed Proetids into cows - in Origin Io may be
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