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CLA204H1 (63)
James Lynd (13)
Chapter 22

Notes for Chapter 22

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University of Toronto St. George
James Lynd

Chapter 22 The Legends of Aeneas - Roman religious and social patterns of thought were quite different firm those of Greeks, as were their economic and political institutions - In the native roman tradition there is no creation story - Almost no divine myth - Roman myth is legend, bound with it’s history - > however, not really historically true - Myths used as propaganda - Romans knew this, but accepted it anyways - Moral is most important - Roman myth ‘then looks like traditions storytelling and is modeled after Greek myth, but moral and political purposes have become paramount. - Profound influence on western civilization Early rome: Myth, legend, history - by 8th c bcd the metal-rich hills of Italy’s western coast, inhabited by indigenous non- indo-european etruscans had become a magnets for greek colonists and phoenician traders. - Cultural exchange a by=product of commernce in mining and industry - One of the oldest known inscriptions in greek alphabet: famous cup owned by nestor in illiad - In earliest days, rome was uled by kings - About 500 bcd an alliance of ealthy land-owning latin fams the ‘patricians’ or ‘fathers’ destroyed the foreign etruscan monarchy - Thereafter the patricians met at the senate; ‘the body of old men’ to pass laws and de- cicde on peace and war - Those excluded fom the privileged class were called plebeians ‘commoners’ - Under the Republic, usually rigged elections were held among the members of ruling patrician oligarchy - Never more than 30-40 ruling fams at one time - Legislative branch held the power - Weaker executive branch consisted of two consuls, elected annually - Kept in line by their short time in office and power of veto each held over the other Chapter 22 - A consul possessed ‘imperium’ the ‘power’ to command the army and enforce the law - > including death penalty - > symbol of imperium was the fasces, an ax surrounded by a bundle of rods carried by bearers called lictors who preceded the counsuls wherever they went - Rods were for wipping, ax for beheading - From this comes word facism because the 20th c ruler Benito mussolini calaimed to be reconstructing et roman state. - The patricians made up myths about their fams - Real successful, territory expanded greatly - In 30 bcd this gov’t gave way to a new quasimonarchy under augustus (63 bcd to 14 ad) - Julius Caesar (100-44bc) - Viewed as putting his own ambitions before the whole - Patricians thought Caesars death would servitor power to the enatorial oligarchy, but his party under Marc Antony and octavian (augustus) conquered the senatorial armies and divided the world between them, octavian taking west, antony taking east - Marcs affair with cleo led to a war between him and octavian. Octavian won and took full control Roman Religion - Direct ancestors of Romans were the Latini - Entered ialian peninsula as early as 1500 bcd - Name from Latinum, Numina and Sacrificium - native roman deitiesseem to have been mostly personifications of of various wuali- tiesand were strictly limited to their functions - Could only refuse or assent to requests - Are called numina, from numen ‘nodders’ - They are spirits that can inhabit almost any object or serve any function - examples: - > Robigo, grammatically femme and Robigus, grammatically macs. - - > a spirit whose gender was unimportant. Could bring or hold back fungus disease in grain crop. Chapter 22 - Sacrifice to them was called the robigalia, held annually on April 25. A priest of Querns, a numne representing the people, would asking robigus/o to hold back the blight - In return priest offered entrails of a filthy red dog - Ceremony called sacrificium - > ‘making sacred’ - Sacrificium was a legal transfer of something into the ownership of the numen who was expected to fulfill their sideof the deal - Do et des ‘I grant you this so that you ill give me that in exchange’ - Will of Numina revealed through divination - Needed ‘nod’ from the numen - Hahaha : Claudius Pulcher saw favorable omen by feeding sacred chickens. They were seasick and couldn’t eat so he said ‘let them drink’ and threw them overboard. He sailed into defea at hands of Carthaginians - Cerealia, ceremony to Ceres/demeter on April 19 - Best known numen is Janus ‘gate’ - origin a numen of bridgs, hence of going forth and returning. Represented as a man with toe faces, one looking forward, one back - January comes from him Roman Deities Equated with Greek - when roman poets fell under The influence of greeks living in southern itly, the began to think of numina as being the anthropomorphic gods of greeks - Jupiter, jove, zeus, numen of bright sky received sacrifice of pigs with a stone knife, right from neolithic times - He became incarnation of striking power of roman state. - Juno presided of women, close ties to moon - Ceres, demeter, of wheat - Diana, Artemis, di shining - Mercury, Hermes commercial stuff - Vilcan, not latin, Hephaestus - Neptune, numen of water, poseidon - Apollo was never successfully identified wit a latin numen but kept his name - Mars.ares, closely related to wolf, March - >good time for military expeditions - Minerva, handicrafts Chapter 22 - Liber, Dionysus, wine - Faunus ‘pan’, forest numen - Venus, once of fresh water, later fertility - Herc reallll important Observations: Gods and men in roman meat market - early cult of herc at rome reflect the universal appeal of most important greek hero and romes voracious appetite for foreign novelties - Important n ‘cattle market’, Forum Boarium - Herc was driving cattle of Geryon to mycelia when he stopped at rome, liberated city from cattle rustler Cacus - Erc became a model for the rough and ready neighborhood of rome, receiving butch- ers cattle traders, athletes, and generals - Emperors adopted herc traits; the lion skin and club - Herc, apollo, Fortuna ‘luck’ and portions ‘river ford’ received cultic statues in forum bar- ium Gods of the Family and State - Divinities associated with the Roman fam always retained their own identities despite greekinfluence - > either because the greeks had no deities - > or because they were is embedded in roman life - example; Lar, a protective deity. (plural lares) - Name apparently from etruscan word for spirit of the dead. - Origin: probs a protective ghost of fertile field then came to protect all kinds of places - > household, ,streets, even whole cities. - Lares were worshipping in small shrines at crossroads where the boundaries of four farms came together. - At the temple every year a doll was suspended for each member of the fam and a ball of wool for each slave - > perhaps substitute for human sacrifice - another example, The Penates, who protected a household’s things, especially food. - These two were often confused with each other - > penates were portables, lares fixed. Chapter 22 - In origin penates were Th. Numina of the storehouse - > penus means cupboard - - > pantry - later became identified with wealfare of roman state - Trojan gods whom hector’s ghost entrusted to aeneas as he fled troy were identified with the state penates - > also associated with the Dioscuri, Castor and Pollux, who protected roman state - Religious activity of fam revolved around the gens (plural genets) meaning ‘clan’ - Also the fami
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