CRI205H1 Chapter 1: Social Learning Article
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Department
Centre for Criminology and Sociolegal Studies
Course
CRI205H1
Professor
Dr.Reza Barmaki
Semester
Winter

Description
1. Social Learning, Sexual and Physical Abuse and Adult Crime Felson  Research shows that children have been physically and sexually abused are more likely commit violent offenses as adults than children who have not been victimized. These children are also more likely to commit sexual offenses as adolescents or adults. The idea that a history of abuse in childhood is a causal factor in violence and sexual offending is widely accepted by scholars in the area and have had a great impact on public discourse.  The most common explanation of the effect of abuse on offending involves modeling example Bandura 1978. According to social learning theory individuals learn in part, by observing the behaviors of others. Vicarious Learning is more likely went either the model or observer is rewarded, but it can occur without favorable consequences. According to this argument some children learn to do what has been done to them ( as well as what they witness). The child victims later becomes the perpetrator resulting in what has been called the intergenerational transmission of violence.  Neither theory nor research has paid much attention to what behaviors children model when they have been abused. Bandura 1978 suggest that behavior modeled is often the same as the behavior observed. Therefore children who have been physically abused should be more likely to engage in violent behavior, where children will have been sexually abused should be more likely to engage in sexual offenses. Consistent with this idea is research suggesting that sexually abused children engage in more sexualized behavior.  Modeling is not necessarily specific however there may be stimulus generalization whereby the models response to one type of stimulus please observe or imitate that response to similar stimuli. Bandura also suggest the observation of aggression can allow individuals to “extract general tactics and strategies of behavior that enabled him to go beyond what they have seen or heard” “whereby observers can evolve new forms of aggression” still a social learning perspective implies that the modeling of the specific behavior should be strongest as it is the most direct lesson learned from the model. The effects of a particular form of abuse on a related behavior requires more inference on the part of the observer.  It is still not clear however exactly what children learn from abusive models for example to children who have been sexually abused litigation sexual offenses against children of sexual offenses generally? Children of violence as an appropriate role behavior for parents is to be more likely to engage in violence against their own children that other forms of violence. The modeling process involves role learning . if individuals learned to use violence when they’re angry during the dispute then they should be more likely to engage in homicide and assault and robbery and rape. The former are much more likely to stem from disputes. Finally if abuse individuals learn violence as a general means of adaptation then they should be more likely to engage in violent offenses than nonviolent offenses they should commit robbery in sexual assault as well as homicide and assault more often than they commit property crime.  Social learning theory is not the only explanation of affects of abuse. Other theories about the effects of abuse imply different predictions. According to attachment theory mist treatment of any type leave children to think that the world is a hostile place and interferes with their ability to develop satisfactory relations with others. They think others have aggressive intentions towards them when they do not. If miss treatment leads to hostility bias then we would expect that both physical and sexual abuse lead to crime in addition abuse should have a stronger effect on homicide and assaults that other crimes. If people think others have attacked them they’re likely to be angry and retaliated with a physical assault. Abuse should lead to dispute related crime not predatory crime.  It could also be that’s the affects of the weakened attachments are more general. If children have a weak attachment to their parents they may be resistant to parents influence and therefore may be more likely to commit crimes generally. Control theory also implies that abuse weakens bonds with parents which then leads to a variety of criminal behavior. From these perspectives any type of parent toll maltreatment leads to a variety of behavioral problems later on.  Some scholars suggest that victims of child abuse experience posttraumatic stress disorder that continues into adulthood. Widom suggest that the effect of sexual abuse on criminal behavior later in life may result from the Tom and stress lot I’m specifically sexual nature of the incident. The predictions of this theory are similar to predictions of attachment theory. Both types of abuse should have affects. Hello there it is not clear what the long-term consequences of stress should be.  To those who take the frustration aggression approach stress and other aversive stimuli results in angry or reactive aggression. From this perspective you should be more strongly associated with homicide and assault than other crimes as the former are more likely to involve angry aggression ( as opposed to instrumental aggression).  On the other hand according to general strain theory stress results in a variety of criminal behavior. From this perspective one might expect abuse to be associated with the funding but it should not affect the type of crime offenders commit. Before we should not observe the facts of abuse on different offenses as our sample only includes offenders. Finally it is possible to stress resulting from child abuse results in mental illness and that increases the likelihood of violence and sexual offenses. In the study found that a history of mental health treatment was more strongly associated with assaultive violence and sexual offenses that might other types of crime.  Prior research linking abuse in specific offenses: most researchers who study that effect of abuse on criminal behavior do not distinguish deviance ( rule breaking) from violence ( physical harm) examine the particular type of abuse on a particular type of behavior without making comparisons. There’re very few studies that examine the effects of different types of abuse on particular outcomes.  Three studies have found evidence that particular types of abuse are associated with particular types of offenses. In the study of the hundred and one delinquent auto lessons physically abused you more likely to engage in violent offenses versus non- violent offenses than those who had not been abused. Graham exploit victimization experiences he found that seventy % of respondents reported experiencing sexual victimization as a child where are 50% reported physical victimization. Ford and Linney found the child molesters were more likely to have a history of sexual abuse in rapist and nonsexual.  A multivariate Analysis shows that physical abuse neglect and sexual abuse were all associated with the arrest of violent offenses all of the facts for sexual abuse was not statistically significant. The strongest effect is observed for physical abuse but no statistical tests were performed to determine whether it’s effect was significantly stronger. The relationship between different types of abuse and nonviolent climbs where not examined.  Widom examine the effects of different types of the child abuse on the likelihood of an adult arrest for sexual offenses she found that physical abuse but not sexual abuse was related to an arrest for rape or sodomy.  McCord examine the adult criminal record of 232 boys whose parents are just bye-bye counselors of the idea of loving rejecting neglectful punitive the Evidence suggested that children who had parents that were rejecting neglectful or punitive or more likely to have a criminal record as adults. Punitiveness was no more strongly associated with violent crimes than other forms of maltreatment. Finally Matt used clinical appliance to examine the relationships between physical abuse and psychological neglect by parents and selflessness and delinquency for a sample of emotionally disturbed children. She did not find that the relationship between physical abuse and assault fitness stronger than The relationship between other combinations of parental maltreatment and children’s misbehaviour.  In some evidence is mixed from the studies it is not clear whether the discrepant findings I do to differences in measurement or sampling or to the fact that most studies are based on small samples we do not know whether there is an intergenerational transmission of violence or sexual behavior or whether any type of mistreatment cause of children to commit violent crime and crime in general they become adults.  Specialization: it’s different offenses have a common etiology then offender should be versatile example they should commit a variety of crimes on the other hand to the extent different types of offenses have a unique etiology we should observe specialization. Offenders who commit multiple offenses offenses should repeat offences of the same type over their criminal careers. Social learning theory implies higher level of specialization to the extent of physical abuse results in violent offenses and sexual abuse results in sexual offenses we should observe specialization in these offenses. Explanations emphasizing attachment we can control and post dramatic stress syndrome on the other hand implied versatility in offending.  Although many criminologists argue that most offenders are versatile evidence suggests that there is a fair degree of specialization. They show that by the defenders are much more likely to engage in additional violent offenses whereas nonviolent offenders are much more likely to engage in additional nonviolent offenses.  There is also a fairly extensive literature examining specialization in sexual offending. Some studies suggest that sexual offenders are more specialized than other offenders some studies suggest that they’re less specialized than other offenders while others fight no difference the results depend on the measure of specialization used the sample of the degree to which the offense categories are restrictive in addition some studies do not control for the fact that sexual offenses occur much less frequently than other offenses. As a result of offenders next offense s likely to be a sexual offense and some other offense. However in general the literature does seem to suggest that sexual offenders are more likely to commit future sexual offenses then are other offenders indicating a degree of specialization. Lussier conclude that sexual offenders criminal behavior is characterized by certain tendency to specialize in sexual crime overtime against the backdrop of much versatility.  We examine the issues of special etiology and specialization based on self-reported data from a nationally representative sample of male inmates we first examine whether childhood sexual and physical views are more strongly associated what some offenses and others social learning theory suggests that sexual and physical abuse have different effects specifically and predicts that: 1) sexual abuse game childhood is associated with adult sexual offending particularly sexual offenses against children. 2) physical abuse during childhood is associated with adult violent offending.  Social learning theory does not make it clear prediction about whether offenders who 11 physically abuse are more likely to engage in assaultive violence in robbery and rape. If they’re modeling the use of violence and interpersonal conflicts we would expect more violence during assaultive violence the fenders have learned to use violence as a general means of adaptation I mean just getting ones way we should observe no difference. In a supplementary analysis we would also determine other physical abuse defenders are particularly likely to engage in violence against their own children.  According to attachment theory and abuse but uses the hostility bias should produce the following pattern: physical and sexual abuse are both associated with adult assaultive violence versus other offenses  supporting this idea would also be consistent what the idea that abuse produces posttraumatic stress syndrome stress and lead to angry aggression but not instrumental aggression according to frustration aggression approach on the other hand if poor attachment decreases parents influence then the abuse of any type should lead to all types of offending I need type of mistreatment of behavior string theory would make the same prediction.  Sexual and physical abuse are unrelated to the type of current offense. In the supplementary analysis when it affects abuse on mediated by mental illness interpretation of the posttraumatic stress argument is that stress could use his mental illness and mental illness leads to violence or sexual offending. If this is the case then affects of abuse should reduced when one controls from mental illness and frequency in drinking.  If different types of abuse have different effects then should have some specialization to examine the issue include the prior offense history of offenders and our equation to the extent that offender specialize be expected their prior offenses to be the same as the funds that led to their current incarceration. Far purpose additional information about the criminal history of these offenders is unnecessary we are sampling the most recent offense can lead to incarceration and there is no strong reason to think that this offense is not worth being representative Deere offending history in addition although measurement error on the dependent variable can influence the intercept or increase the size of standard errors it does not biased parameters estimates. In the regression framework it is a measurement error in independent variables that can be potentially biased estimates in the model.  I examination of the association between different independent tables in different dependent variables involves a form of theory testing that has been called discriminant prediction this concept is similar to the concept of discriminant validity in measurement theory this method tests theories by determining weather variables predict what they should and not what they should not experimental psychologist use the same method they call it control constructs design-when they compare the effects of a treatment on the predicted outcome to its effects on a related outcome that should not be affected.  Hawkins have shown that United States has higher rates of homicide but not other violent or nonviolent crimes then European countries.  Discriminate prediction is particularly useful method in the study of abuse and violence because of the limitations of more traditional methods first abuse is difficult to measure one must rely on either self-reports or official statistics and both can be unreliable as discriminate prediction involves comparisons of the relative strength of effects measurement issues not as problematic. We are interested in the relative size of coefficients not the absolute size  the same argument applies to effects involving prior offending. Second theory testing is difficult in this area because surveys that are available do not typically include measures of possible mediating variables in addition to mediating variables implied by modeling process are difficult to measure. Discriminant prediction on the other hand does not require the examination of mediating variables finally it is particularly difficult addressed the issue of spuriousness in the study of abuse and v
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