Qin and Han Dynasty.docx

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East Asian Studies
Lin Fang

Qin Dynasty 9/25/2013 4:11:00 PM  Qin dynasty destroyed Zhou royal domain in 256 BCE Qin Unification:  Influential person during this time= Lu Buwei  Could use his wealth to gain political favor= high social mobility  Came up with a scheme to favor a possible heir to the throne and help him succeed it  He later on became chancellor and became regent when the new king was enthroned  One of the orders was that people who had gotten money through their own enterprises be given ranks  Lu recruited scholars to come to Qin to write a book about a unified realm that he dreamed of  After a while the king began to rule on his own and sent Lu away  Lu saw he was losing favor with the king and killed himself  Qin conquered 6 more states and expanded their territory First Emperor: (221-210 BCE)  King Cheng thought the title “king” wasn’t enough and changed it to emperor  To cripple nobles of the defunct states, all nobles were told to move to the capital  Dispatched officials to the territories that had been taken over. No hereditary position  Shared the Legalist suspicion of intellectual diversity  In 213 BCE, ordered to have all useless writings burned, many ancient texts were lost First Emperor’s tomb:  Started to work on it after being enthroned  Terra cotta warrior person  Why the terra cotta army?  Trend in burials to have representations rather the actual objects  Was scared of death  Sent a group of people to search for Penglai the rumored island of immortality Qin Law:  Thought to be a harsh legal system  Penalties= hard labor, mutilation, banishment, slavery or death  Punishments were pretty brutal  Mutual responsibility fell on the families who would be punished too Xiongnu and the Great Wall:  215 BCE one of the generals led a huge army to drive the Xiongnu out of their region  the general helped secure the area by gathering thousands of conscripted peasants and convicted laborers to build the Great Wall  Han Dynasty 9/25/2013 4:11:00 PM  206 BCE -220 CE  Emperor Gao took over  Didn’t disband centralized government created by Qin, removed unpopular features though  Set up a new capital  Got rid of some laws, cut taxes, lessened burdens on other people  Gave out huge fiefs to his generals and chiefs  Realized that giving followers independent resources= mistake and tried to eliminate the fief holder who ere not relatives  Xiongnu posed a threat and attacked Taiyuan a major city  Tried to retrieve the land back but failed and had to give a tribute of gifts to Xiongnu every year  Han tried to pacify Xiongnu but they kept invading borders  The emperor was all powerful aka puppet but always depended on his high officials and chancellor for advice  9 ministries were used to handle matters  Officials graded by rank and salary appointed because of their talent  Local officials responsibilities:  Collect taxes, judge lawsuits, etc.  Han emperor who had the largest impact on the Han dynasty= Emperor Wu  Emperor Wu came to throne as a teenager  Took an interest in the arts and patronized both music and poetry  Wanted his officials to study Confucian texts  Expanded empire through military means  Push Xiongnu back = expensive military campaign  To pay for military charges= confiscate the land back from nobles and increased taxes on public business  Government decided to enter market competition by selling commodities that had been collected as taxes  119 BCE government had monopolized iron, salt, liquor.  First emperor to use Confucian scholars in the government  Highest duties of a scholar is to prevent the ruler from going towards misguided policies  More efficient with Confucian since they did not have to be supervised as closely as those who were Legalists  Although slight problem with the Emperor not liking to be criticized
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