EAS103H1 - chapter 12

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East Asian Studies
Graham Sanders

pg 194204 Chapter 12 China under Mongol Rule 12151368y Mongols conquered China successive campaigns over 70 years nonChinese Jurchens Tanguts submitted y by time of Khubilai r 13601394 Mongol rule became more sophisticated administrationMongol Conquest of Jia and Xia Dynasties y north China fell to Mongols early attacks ChinggisGenghis o Chinggis raided Jin territory1205 1209 launched major campaign 1211Outnumbered by Chinese army but Mongol tactics worked attacking city raiding it withdrawing and dispersing letting Jin take it back and deal with food shortages and destructionJin Western capital Datong and Central capital Beijing taken this way y Jin had no stable leadership during crisis 1213 Jurchen general murdered Jin emperor to put another on throne but general got murdered soon after y 1214 Jurchen made peace treaty with Mongols o Central capital moved to Southern capital Kaifeng because felt central one was too vulnerableChinggis interpreted move as revolt and sacked and burned Central capital 1215 when it fell y Jin only had small territory so attacked Song to expand 12161223 y next Jin emperor focused on fighting Mongols but in 1229 new khan gdei sent main Mongol army to destroy Jin Jin surrendered 1234 o Chinggis began to recruit more Chinese and Khitans into armies literate Chinese began to work clerical jobs Chinese began to work as catapult operators during sieges1218 Mongol commander recommended welleducated and sinicized Khitan Yel QucaiChinggis admired his bluntness pg 195 y Yel worked for Mongols for 25 years trying to get them to see benefits of ruling Chinese in Chinese ways y Tangu Xia Dynasty submitted 1209 but kept trying to establish alliances with Jin and Song o 1226 Mongols attacked Xia cities and destroyed them Chinggis died during this campaign but kept secret y north China suffered greatly during this time constantly plundered people enslavedno real administration pg 195 o gdeis advisers suggested turning area into pastureland destroying all of people here completelyYel countered should collect taxes from people farming in northAsian Muslim merchants bidding for license to collect taxes pg 195 y Yuan Haowen 11901257 passed examinations in 1221 and served Jin army during last fight with Mongols requested Yel to have 54 men of letters spared collected materials to write
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