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Chapter 18

Chapter 18 China in Decline.docx

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East Asian Studies
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Chapter18ChinainDecline(1800-1900) Economic and Fiscal Problems - As developed areas became more crowded, farmers tried cultivating more intensively, making more use of irrigation and fertilizer and weeding more regularly, techniques that made possible denser population in the richest areas - Only lands suited to agriculture that were out of bounds—Manchuria (Qing maintained as a preserve for the Manchus) - Hard time: average of living suffered, families could raise more than 2 children and saw sons as necessities - Daoguang Emperor  set an example of frugality at court and encouraged his officials to cut every possible cost, but the fiscal situation steadily worsened  ordered repairs to the Grand Canal  problem facing: supporting the hereditary military force, the banners  the best thing he could hope for was to keep bannermen from becoming beggars, bandits, opium smugglers, or opium addicts Midcentury Crises The Opium War - European were permitted to trade only at the port of Guangzhou and only through licensed Chinese merchants - 18 century, Great Britain and other Western nations used silver to pay for steadily increasing purchases of tea. But they found few buyers when they brought goods to sell  Macartney asked Qianlong to alter the way of trade didn’t approved  Britain started to trade opium which had been used for medicinal purposes in China  Once they found another way opium became recreational drug that people took to relieve plain and boredom and to make tedious or taxing work more bearable  Daoguang emperor was outraged because everyone were addicted to opium  They would do whatever they can to keep up the supply of the drug  Government banned the production and importation of opium in 1899  1813, smoking of opium, punishing it with a beating of hundred blows  Chinese smugglers bought opium and anchored off the coast, then distributed to the middlemen, making it difficult for the Qing government to catch the major dealers  Lin Zexu went to Guangzhou to suppress opium trade. He arrested some seventeen hundred Chinese dealers and seizing seventy thousand opium pipes.  British blocked the ports and forcing Qing to negotiate preliminary agreement called for ceding HK, repaying the British the cost of their expedition, and allowing direct diplomatic intercourse between the new countries  Finally Qing government signed a treated  1842, treaty of Nanjing, which settled the Opium War, good for British but not for China, making it “unequal”.  Followed by an amended agreement and treaties with the US and France  This set of treaties opened 5 ports to international trade, fixed the tariff on imported foods, and ceded the island of HK to Britain.  Western imperialism had its first victory in China whenever one nation extracted a new privilege from China, it was extended automatically to Britain Taiping Rebellion (1851-1864) - Hong Ziuquan Hakkas were a large Han Chinese ethnic group - After ht readChristian tract that a missionary in Guangzhou had given to him, he interpreted his visions that he was Jesus’s young brother - Began preaching, calling on people to destroy idols and ancestral temples, give up opium and alcohol, and renounce foot binging and prostitution - His group: the God Worshipping Society and attracted many followers - Ysng xiuqing elevated himself, claim superiority over Hong. - Hong declared himself king of Taiping - Men were to abandon the Manchu queue and let their hair grow long - Their religious zeal propelled them to destroy local temples, even though this alienated many commoners - Manchu bannermen and their families were often slaughtered after Taiping forces took a city - After making Nanjing their capital, the Taipings announced plans for a utopian society based on the equalization of landholdings and the equality of men and women - Women could take the civil service examinations, which were based on Hong Xiuquan’s teachings and translations of the Bible - Zeng Guofan, served in high positions in Beijing, organized his army in a new way  Recruited officers from among the Confucian-educated elite and had them recruit their own soldiers from among farmers in their region  Was given permission to draw on local tax receipts and so could pay the soldieries and officers well because of loyalties, formed a private army  Needed 12 years and 120000 troops before defeated Taipings  General under him, Li Hongzhang and Zuo Zongtang, played major roles in the slow stranglehold placed over the Taipang capital Other Rebellions - Poverty and unemployment had driven many villagers into banditry alon
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