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Chapter 22

Chapter 22 Rise of Modern Japan.docx

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Chapter22RiseofModernJapan A Fluid International Order - Foreign affairs resonated through Japan’s economy, politics, society, and culture - The imperative to challenge white supremacy by achieving great power status and rising in the hierarchy of nations shaped Japan’s national identity - Colonies came to be economic necessity - Signing an alliance with Britain drive great power - Going to war against Russia - Before, Japan forced Korean king to accept a limited protectorate that made Korea Japan’s ally and subject to Japan’s lead in administrative matters - In 1910, Japan annexed Korea. At the same time, Japan formalized control over Taiwan - World war I proved advantageous for Japan both economically and diplomatically - Japan also tried to impose the infamous Twenty-One Demands on China - Following World War I, Japan collaborated with Western powers, joined the League of Nations Economic Development - In 20 century, Japanese corporations took advantage of international technological and managerial innovations - Dual structure characterized Japan’s modern economy  Conglomerates linked through holding and trading companies—Zaibatsu 日本財閥 (financial cliques)—dominated the most modern sectors of the economy and produced standardized, high-volume products  Zaibatsu cooperated in cartels that divided up raw materials and access to markets - Japan’s industrial sector was well placed to take advantage of World War I Japan’s companies found themselves overextended financially and forced to lay off workers when Britain took back markets in China and South Asia and European manufacturing replaced Japanese exports Constitutional Government 憲政 - Hara Takashi became independent prime minister  Used his control over the Home Ministry to make Seiyukai (friends of Government Party) the dominant party in the Diet  Worked with bureaucrats in the Tokyo office and built a following for Seiyukai in prefectural offices  Also perfected pork barrel politics  Later Japan had to deal with the Great Depression and fears of Russian or Chinese threats to Manchuria Imperial Democracy - For Japanese intellectuals, liberalism meant representative government, constitutionalism, and rule by law - Meant individual rights and freedom - The problem of liberals was that imperial ideology defined the emperor as present as society’s inception - It approved of the government’s efforts to promote industrialization and make Japan the equal of the West, and never questioned the centrality of the em
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