some basic events and ideas in the text book

9 Pages
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Department
East Asian Studies
Course Code
EAS105H1
Professor
Andre Schmid

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1 Question 1 China in DeclineDuring the early nineteenth century the Qing dynasty seemed to be slipping into dynastic decline Revenues were no longer adequate to cover the costs of administration Rural poverty was worsening Then in midcentury some of the bloodiest rebellions in Chinese history broke out On top of this a new enemy had appeared on Chinas shore one able to land its ships where it liked and destroy Chinese defenses with its cannons y Both external and internal threats peasant poverty social unrest government bankruptcy foreign threat y Economic and social problems population growth not enough food low standard of living government short of revenue lead to heavy taxationy Opium war greatly defeated weak military force because of long peace and short of funds far behind on technology because of close door polity unequal treat more heavier burden on existing poor governmenty Bloody rebellion cost money and effort break up the government Taiping Rebellion over a decade almost succeed huge loss of lives and money Caused social and economic suffering y Failures of Reform also failure of selfstrengtheningJapan in Turmoil Belying prosperity were problems such as vagrancy gambling and prostitution that threatened the social order propped up by administrators and wealthy entrepreneurs Added to these signs of domestic distress was an increasing fear of threats from abroad The shogunates ineffectual attempts to deal with these problems weakened it in the eyes of military ruling class which lead to the collapse of shogunate at the end of 1867 y Social and economic suffering heavy taxationy Foreign threats closing the country to the West loss of trade and western technology exchange Unequal Treaties with the USallow US ships to call at the shores and to obtain coal and other supplies Shipwrecked sailors were to be treated fairly and the US had the right to station a consul at Shimoda open six cities to foreign residence accept low tariffs on imported goods whereas its own exports faced steep tariffs in the US allow foreign residents and visitors the privilege of extraterritoriality Also sign similar treaties with Netherlands Britain France and Russia y Political turmoil blamed shogunate for sole responsibility for foreign affairs fall of the shogunate
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