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Ecology & Evolutionary Biology
Mart Gross

Chapter 9 Habitat Destruction Fragmentation Degradation and Global Climate Change Seven major threats to biological diversity that result from human activity are habitat destruction habitat fragmentation habitat degradation include pollution global climate change overexploitation of species for human use introduction of invasive species and increased spread of diseaseThreats such as habitat destruction fragmentation degradation and global climate change happen so quickly and on such a large scale that species are not able to adapt genetically to the changes or disperse to a more hospitable locationMany threats interact additively having a greater impact on species and ecosystemsHuman Population Growth and Its Impacts Figure 91Seven major threats caused by expanding human population has caused o Land surface useagriculture and forestry o Nitrogen cyclehuman activities fertilizers fossil fuels o Atmospheric cyclecutting down forests and fossil fuels Human population good predicator of the intensity of threats to biodiversity o Exploit resources for shortterm gain th Agricultural systems occupy 14 of Earths land surfaceNitrogen in rivers is highest were population is high and dense high of deforestationPolitical instability lawlessness and war result in habitat transformation and local extinctionUntil people are given the opportunity to improve their lives in a sustainable manner and economic inequality persists the environment will continue to deteriorate Rise of industrial capitalism and materialistic modern society has accelerated demands for natural resources results in wasteful use and overconsumptionIPAT Iimpact of any human population on the environment Pnumber of people Aaverage income Tlevel of technologyGlobalization the increased interconnectedness of resource and labour market Ecological Footprint influence a group of people has on both surrounding environment and locations across the globe Enormous consumption of resources in an increasingly globalized world is not sustainable in the long termHabitat DestructionHabitat destruction conversion results in expansion of human population and human activitiesMost important means of protecting biological diversity is habitat preservationHabitat fragmentation and damage means that habitat is lost to species who cannot tolerate changes
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