EEB255 Chapter 21.docx

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30 Mar 2012
Chapter 21
An International Approach to Conservation and Sustainable Development
Biological diversity is concentrated in developing countries which tend to have
weak government and relatively high poverty, economic and social equality,
population growth, and habitat destruction
International cooperation and agreements are often needed to protect
biodiversity and to address issues of population and climate change
Countries can collectively manage shared areas, such as coastal zones and
shared resources such as migratory animals and fishing grounds
Protection of biodiversity must be addressed at multiple levels of government
However, international cooperation is an absolute requirements for several
o Species migrate across international boarders
o International trade in biological products is commonplace
o Benefits of biological diversity are of international importance
o Many problems of environmental pollution that threaten ecosystems are
international in scope and require international cooperation
International Agreement to Protect Species
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES)
headquarters in Switzerland, establish lists of species for which international
trade is to be controlled or monitored
o treaty has currently been ratified by 175 countries member countries
agree to restrict trade in and destructive exploitation of these species
Red Data Book = national version of IUCN
International Agreement to Protect Habitat
Countries can gain international recognition for protected areas through the
Ramsar Convention, the World Heritage Convention and the Biosphere Reserves
Trans-frontier parks in border areas provide opportunities for both conservation
and international cooperation
International Earth Summits
Earth Summit conference brought together representatives from 178
countries, including head of state, leaders in the United Nations, major
conservation organizations, and other groups representing religious and
indigenous peoples with the purpose to discuss way of combining increased
protection of the environment with more effective economic development in less
wealthy countries
Developed countries collectively agreed that they would assist the developing
countries of the world in the long-term goal of protecting the global environment
and biodiversity
Countries sign 4 major documents:
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