Textbook Notes (367,974)
Canada (161,538)
Economics (479)
ECO101H1 (177)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Typical Question and Answers

11 Pages
83 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Economics
Course
ECO101H1
Professor
George Ignatieff
Semester
Fall

Description
CHAPTER 2 2-1. How many hours will a person allocate to leisure activities if her indifference curves between consumption and goods are concave to the origin? A worker will either work all available time or will not work at all. As drawn in Figure A, point B is preferred to points A and C. Thus, the worker chooses not to enter the labor market. As drawn in Figure B, point C is preferred to both points A and B. Thus, the worker chooses not to consume any leisure and work all available time. FAigurBigure Goods Goods C C U1 U 1 A A U 0 U 0 B B Hours of Leisure Hours of Leisure 2-2. What is the effect of a rise in the price of market goods on a workers reservation wage, probability of entering the labor force, and hours of work? Suppose the price of market goods increases from p to p the persons non-labor income is V. If she chooses not to work, she can purchase V/p units of consumption after the price change, whereas she could have consumed V/p units of consumption prior to the price increase. Thus, her endowment point has moved from E to E in Figure A. As long as leisure is a normal good, the indifference curve is steeper as we move up a vertical line, indicating that the slope of the indifference curve is steeper at E than at E. Thus, an increase in the price of goods lowers the reservation wage and makes the person more likely to work. 1 Figure A. Goods V/p E E V/p 0 T Hours of Leisure To simplify the illustration of the effect on hours of work, assume for simplicity that V = 0. The increase in the price of goods shifts the budget line from FE to GE, moving the worker from P to point R. This shift induces both an income effect and a substitution effect. The price increase in effect lowers the persons real wage rate, increasing the demand for leisure and leading to fewer hours of work. This substitution effect is illustrated by the move from point P to point Q in Figure B. The price increase also reduces the workers wealth, lowering the demand for leisure and leading to more hours of work. This income effect is illustrated by the move from Q to R. As drawn the income effect dominates the substitution effect and the price increase lowers the demand for leisure and increases hours of work. It is, of course, possible for the substitution effect to dominate the income effect (not pictured), so that hours of work decreases. Thus, without further restrictions on preferences, an increase in the price of market goods has an ambiguous effect on hours worked. Figure B. Goods F P Q G R E T Hours of Leisure 22-3. Sally can work up to 3,120 hours each year (a busy social life and sleep take up the remaining time). She earns a fixed hourly wage of $25. Sally owes a 10 percent payroll tax on the first $40,000 of income. Above $40,000 of income, there is no payroll tax. Sally also faces a progressive income tax rate. There is no income tax on the first $10,000 of income. From $10,000 up to $60,000, the marginal income tax rate is 25 percent. Above $60,000, the marginal income tax rate is 50 percent. Graph Sallys budget line. Sallys budget line will have kinks at gross income levels of $10,000, $40,000, and $60,000. As her wage is $25 per hour, these kinks occur after 400 hours, 1,600 hours, and 2,400 hours of work respectively, or, similarly, at 2,720, 1,520, and 720 hours of leisure. From 0 to 400 hours, Sallys after-tax wage is $22.50 (90 percent of $25). If she works exactly 400 hours, her after-tax income is $9,000. From 400 to 1,600 hours, Sallys after-tax wage is $16.25 (65 percent of $25). If she works exactly 1,600 hours, her after-tax income is $9,000 + $16.25 (1600-400) = $28,500. From 1,600 to 2,400 hours, Sallys after-tax wage is $18.75 (75 percent of $25). If she works exactly 2,400 hours, her after-tax income is $28,500 + $18.75 (2400-1600) = $43,500. From 2,400 to 3,120 hours, Sallys after-tax wage is $12.50 (50 percent of $25). If she works exactly 3,120 hours, her after-tax income is $43,500 + $12.50 (3120-2400) = $52,500. Sally's Budget Line 60000
More Less

Related notes for ECO101H1

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit