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Chapter 4

ECO220Y1 Chapter 4 Notes

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Jennifer Murdock

ECO220Y1 Textbook Notes Chapter 4: Displaying and Describing Categorical Data 4.1 The Three Rules of Data Analysis  Three things to do with data: o Make a picture  Will help reveal thing you are not able to see in a table of numbers and will help you plan your approach to the analysis and think clearly about the patterns and relationships hiding in your data. o Make a picture  Will do much of the work of analysing your data for you.  Will reveal important features and patterns and possibly wrong data that you missed in the table. o Make a picture  Best way to report to others your findings is with a well- chosen picture. 4.2 Frequency Tables  Frequency table: a table that lists the categories in a categorical variable and gives the number of observations for each category.  Relative frequency table: a frequency table showing proportions, or percentages instead of numbers. 4.3 Charts  Area principle: holds that the area occupied by a part of the graph should correspond to the magnitude of the value it represents (i.e. if one bar is 2x the size of another bar in a bar chart, it should be twice as big, no more/no less).  Distribution: the distribution of a variable is a list of: o All the possible values of the variable. o The relative frequency of each variable.  Bar chart: a chart that represents the count (or %) of each category in a categorical variable as a bar, allowing easy visual comparison across categories.  Pie chart: a chart that shows how a “whole” divides into categories by showing a wedge of a circle whose area corresponds to the proportion in each category.  Think before you draw. o You must decide what kind of picture is appropriate to be drawn given the data you have.  When dealing with a pie chart or relative frequency bar chart,
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