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Chapter

ENG100H1 Chapter Notes -Continuity Editing, Flashforward, Optical Printer


Department
English
Course Code
ENG100H1
Professor
A Maurice

Page:
of 2
Chapter 4 Relating Images Editing
editing the process of selecting and joining film footage and shots; the individual responsible for this process is the editor
magic lantern a device developed in the 17th century for projecting an image from a slide; a precursor of motion pictures
chronophotography a sequence of still photographs such as those depicting human or animal motion produced by Eadweard
Muybridge and Étienne-Jules Marey; the immediate precursor of the cinema
crosscutting (parallel editing) editing technique that cuts back and forth between actions in separate spaces, implying simultaneity
montage the French word for “editing”; it can be used to signify any joining of images, but it has come to indicate a style that
emphasizes the breaks and contrasts between images joined by a cut, following Soviet silent-era filmmakers’ use of the term; also
designates rapid sequences in Hollywood films used for descriptive purposes or to show the rapid passage of time; intellectual
montage was defined by Sergei Eisenstein as an intellectual juxtaposition of two images in order to generate ideas
intercutting interposing shots of two or more actions, locations, or contents
continuity editing (invisible editing) the institutionalized system of Hollywood editing that uses cuts and other transitions to
establish verisimilitude, to construct a coherent time and space, and to tell stories clearly and efficiently; continuity editing follows
the basic principle that each shot or scene has a continuous relationship to the next; sometimes called invisible editing
jump cuts an edit that interrupts a particular action and intentionally or unintentionally creates discontinuities in the spatial or
temporal development of shots
shock cut a cut that juxtaposes two images whose dramatic difference aims to create a jarring visual effect
fade-out an optical effect in which an image gradually darkens to black, often ending a scene or a film
fade-in an optical effect in which a black screen gradually brightens to a full picture; often used after a fade-out to create a
transition between scenes
dissolve an optical effect that briefly superimposes one shot over the next; one image fades out as another fades in and takes its
places; sometimes called a lap dissolve because two images overlap in the printing process
iris a shot in which the corners of the frame are masked in a black, usually circular, form; an iris-out is a transition that gradually
obscures the image by moving in; an iris-in expands to reveal the entire image
wipes a transition used to joint two shots by moving a vertical, horizontal, or sometimes diagonal line across one image to replace
it with a second image that follows the line across the frame
optical effects special effects produced with the use of an optical printer, including visual transitions between shots such as
dissolves, fade-outs, and wipes, or process shots that combine figures and backgrounds through the use of matte shots
optical printer the photographic equipment used by technicians to create optical effects in films by duplicating the already
exposed image onto new film stock and altering the lighting or adding additional components
verisimilitude the quality of fictional representation that allows readers or viewers to accept a constructed world, its events, its
characters, and their actions as plausible; literally “having the appearance of truth”
continuity style the systematic approach to filmmaking associated with classical Hollywood cinema, utilizing a broad array of
technical choices from continuity editing to scoring that support the principle of effacing technique in order to emphasize human
agency and narrative clarity
re-establishing shots a shot during an edited sequence that returns to an establishing shot to restore a seemingly “objective” view
to the spectator
insert a brief shot, often a close-up, filmed separately from a scene and inserted during editing, that points out details significant
to the action
nondiegetic insert an insert that depicts an action, object, or title originating outside of the space and time of the narrative world
axis of action an imaginary line bisecting a scene corresponding to the 180-degree rule in continuity editing
30-degree rule a cinematography and editing rule that specifies that a shot should only be followed by another shot taken from a
position greater than 30 degrees from that of the first
shot/reverse shot an editing pattern that begins with a shot of one character taken from an angle at one end of the axis of action,
follows with a shot of the second character from the “reverse” angle at the other end of the line, and continues back and forth through
the sequence; often used in conversations; also called shot/countershot
reaction shot a shot that depicts a character’s response to something shown in a previous shot
chronology the order according to which shots or scenes convey the temporal sequence of the story’s events
flashback a sequence that follows images set in the present with images set in the past; it may be introduced with a dissolve
conveying a character’s subjective memory or with a voiceover in which a character narrates the past
narrative frequency how often certain plot elements are repeated
flashforward a sequence that connects an image set in the present with one or more future images and that leaps ahead of the
normal cause-and-effect order
duration denotes the temporal relations of shots and scenes to the amount of time that passes in the story
ellipsis an abridgement in time in the narrative implied by editing
cutaway a shot that interrupts a continuous action, “cutting away” to another image or action, often to abridge time
overlapping editing an edited sequence that presents two shots of the same action; because this technique violates continuity, it is
rarely used
pace the tempo at which the film seems to move; it is determined by the duration of individual shots and the style of editing, as
well as by other elements of cinematography and mise-en-scène and the overall rhythm and flow of the film’s action
long takes a shot of relatively long duration
sequence shot a shot in which an entire scene is played out in one continuous take
graphic editing a style of editing creating formal patterns of shapes, masses, colors, lines, and lighting patterns through links
between shots
graphic match edit in which a dominant shape or line in one shot provides a visual transition to a similar shape or line in next shot
match on action a cut between two shots featuring a similar visual action, such as when a shot in which a character opening a door
cuts to a shot depicting the continuation of that action, or when a shot of a train moving left to right cuts to a character running in the
same direction
rhythmic editing the organization of editing according to different paces or tempos determined by how quickly cuts are made
scene one or more shots that depict a continuous space and time
sequence any number of shots or scenes that are unified as a coherent action or an identifiable motif, regardless of changes in time
and space
segmentation the process of dividing a film into large narrative units for the purpose of analysis
continuity script a screenplay that presents in detail the actions, scenes, dialogue, transitions, and often camera setups in the order
planned for the final film
analytical editing continuity editing that establishes spatial and temporal clarity by breaking down a scene, often using
progressively tighter framings that maintain consistent spatial relations
disjunctive editing a variety of alternative editing practices that call attention to the cut through spatial tension, temporal jumps, or
rhythmic or graphic pattern so as to affect viscerally, disorient, or intellectually engage the viewer; also called visible editing
dialectical montage a concept developed in the theories and films of Soviet silent film director Sergei Eisenstein that refers to the
cutting together of conflicting or unrelated images to generate an idea or emotion in the viewer
modernism artistic movement in painting, music, design, architecture, and literature of 1920s that rendered a fragmented vision of
human subjectivity through strategies such as foregrounding of style, experiments with space and time, and open-ended narratives