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Chapter

ENG100H1 Chapter Notes -Code Point, Academy Ratio, Eadweard Muybridge


Department
English
Course Code
ENG100H1
Professor
A Maurice

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Chapter 3 Framing What We See Cinematography
cinematography motion-picture photography, or literally, „writing in movement‟
apparent motion the psychological process that explains our perception of movement when watching films, in which the brain is
actively responding to the visual stimuli of a rapid sequence of still images exactly as it would in actual motion perception
chronophotography a sequence of still photographs such as those depicting human or animal motion produced by Eadweard
Muybridge and Étienne-Jules Marey; the immediate precursor of the cinema
film stock unexposed film consisting of a flexible backing or base and a light-sensitive emulsion
nitrate the highly flammable chemical base of 35mm film stock used until 1951
safety film acetate-based film stock that replaced the highly flammable nitrate film base in 1952
orthochromatic a property of black-and-white film stock used in the 1920s, sensitive to greens and blues but registering red light
as black
film gauge the width of the film socke.g., 8mm, 16mm, 35mm, and 70mm
panchromatic a property of a black-and-white film stock introduced in the 1920s that responds to a full spectrum of colors,
rendering them as shades of gray, for a more nuanced and realistic image
Technicolor color processing that uses three strips of film to transfer colors directly onto a single frame; developed between 1926
and 1932
camera lens a piece of curved glass that focuses light rays in order to form an image on film
focal length the distance from the center of the lens to the point where light rays meet in sharp focus
depth of field range or distance before and behind the main focus of a shot within which objects remain relatively sharp and clear
wide-angle lens a lens with a short focal length (typically less than 35mm) that allows cinematographers to explore a depth of
field that can simultaneously show foreground and background objects or events in focus
handheld cameras a lightweight camera (such as the 16mm Arriflex) that can be carried by the operator rather than mounted on a
tripod; such cameras, widely used during WWII, allowed cinematography to become more mobile and fostered the advent of on-
location shooting
widescreen processes any of a number of systems introduced in the 1950s that widened the aspect ratio and the dimensions of the
movie screen
anamorphic lens a camera lens that compresses the horizontal axis of an image or a projector lens that “unsqueezes” such an
image to produce a widescreen image
filters transparent sheets of glass or gels placed in front of the lens to create various effects
flares a spot or flash of white light created by directing strong light directly at the lens
telephoto lenses a lens with a focal length of at least 75mm, capable of magnifying and flattening distant objects
camera movement (mobile frame) a property of a shot in which the camera itself moves or the borders of the image are altered by
a change in the focal length of the camera lens
Steadicam a camera stabilization system introduced in 1976 that allows a camera operator to film a continuous and steady shot
without losing the freedom of movement afforded by the handheld camera
IMAX a large-format film system that is projected horizontally rather than vertically to produce an image approximately ten times
larger than the standard 35mm frame
Showscan a projection system, developed by Douglas Trumbull and marketed in 1983, that projects at sixty frames per second
(rather than twenty-four frames) and creates remarkably dense and detailed images
video electronic medium that captures, records, stores, displays, and transmits moving images
digital cinematography shooting with a camera that records and stores visual information electronically as digital code
point of view the position from which a person, an event, or an object is seen or filmed; in narrative form, the perspective through
which events are narrated
subjective point of view a point of view that recreates the perspective of a character
objective point of view a point of view that does not associate the perspective of the camera with that of a specific character
framing the portion of the filmed subject that appears within the borders of the frame; it correlates with camera distancee.g.,
long shot or medium close-up
canted frame framing that is not level, creating an unbalanced appearance
aspect ratio the width-to-height ratio of the film frame as it appears on a movie screen or television monitor
academy ratio an aspect ratio of screen width to height of 1.37:1, the standard adopted by the Motion Picture Academy of Arts
and Sciences in 1931 and used by most films until the introduction of widescreen ratios in the 1950s; similar to the standard
television ratio of 1.33:1 or 4:3
widescreen ratio the wider, rectangular aspect ratio of typically 1.85:1 or 2.35:1
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