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ENG100H1 (10)
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Chapter

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Department
English
Course
ENG100H1
Professor
A Maurice
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 4 Relating Images – Editing  editing  the process of selecting and joining film footage and shots; the individual responsible for this process is the editor  magic lantern  a device developed in the 17 century for projecting an image from a slide; a precursor of motion pictures  chronophotography  a sequence of still photographs such as those depicting human or animal motion produced by Eadweard Muybridge and Étienne-Jules Marey; the immediate precursor of the cinema  crosscutting (parallel editing)  editing technique that cuts back and forth between actions in separate spaces, implying simultaneity  montage  the French word for “editing”; it can be used to signify any joining of images, but it has come to indicate a style that emphasizes the breaks and contrasts between images joined by a cut, following Soviet silent-era filmmakers’ use of the term; also designates rapid sequences in Hollywood films used for descriptive purposes or to show the rapid passage of time; intellectual montage was defined by Sergei Eisenstein as an intellectual juxtaposition of two images in order to generate ideas  intercutting  interposing shots of two or more actions, locations, or contents  continuity editing (invisible editing)  the institutionalized system of Hollywood editing that uses cuts and other transitions to establish verisimilitude, to construct a coherent time and space, and to tell stories clearly and efficiently; continuity editing follows the basic principle that each shot or scene has a continuous relationship to the next; sometimes called invisible editing  jump cuts  an edit that interrupts a particular action and intentionally or unintentionally creates discontinuities in the spatial or temporal development of shots  shock cut  a cut that juxtaposes two images whose dramatic difference aims to create a jarring visual effect  fade-out  an optical effect in which an image gradually darkens to black, often ending a scene or a film  fade-in  an optical effect in which a black screen gradually brightens to a full picture; often used after a fade-out to create a transition between scenes  dissolve  an optical effect that briefly superimposes one shot over the next; one image fades out as another fades in and takes its places; sometimes called a lap dissolve because two images overlap in the printing process  iris  a shot in which the corners of the frame are masked in a black, usually circular, form; an iris-out is a transition that gradually obscures the image by moving in; an iris-in expands to reveal the entire image  wipes  a transition used to joint two shots by moving a vertical, horizontal, or sometimes diagonal line across one image to replace it with a second image that follows the line across the frame  optical effects  special effects produced with the use of an optical printer, including visual transitions between shots such as dissolves, fade-outs, and wipes, or process shots that combine figures and backgrounds through the use of matte shots  optical printer  the photographic equipment used by technicians to create optical effects in films by duplicating the already exposed image onto new film stock and altering the lighting or adding additional components  verisimilitude  the quality of fictional representation that allows readers or viewers to accept a constructed world, its events, its characters, and their actions as plausible; literally “having the appearance of truth”  continuity style  the systematic approach to filmmaking associated with classical Hollywood cinema, utilizing a broad array of technical choices from continuity editing to scoring that support the principle of effacing technique in order to emphasize human agency and narrative clarity  re-establishing shots  a shot during an edited sequence that returns to an establishing shot to restore a seemingly “objective” view to the spectator  insert  a brief shot, often a close-up, filmed separately from a scene and inserted during editing, that points out details significant to the action  nondiegetic insert  an insert that depicts an action, object, or title originating outside of the space and time of the narrative world  axis of action  an imaginary line bisecting a
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