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ENG100H1 (10)
A Maurice (9)

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A Maurice

Chapter 3 Framing What We See – Cinematography  cinematography  motion-picture photography, or literally, „writing in movement‟  apparent motion the psychological process that explains our perception of movement when watching films, in which the brain is actively responding to the visual stimuli of a rapid sequence of still images exactly as it would in actual motion perception  chronophotography  a sequence of still photographs such as those depicting human or animal motion produced by Eadweard Muybridge and Étienne-Jules Marey; the immediate precursor of the cinema  film stock  unexposed film consisting of a flexible backing or base and a light-sensitive emulsion  nitrate  the highly flammable chemical base of 35mm film stock used until 1951  safety film  acetate-based film stock that replaced the highly flammable nitrate film base in 1952  orthochromatic  a property of black-and-white film stock used in the 1920s, sensitive to greens and blues but registering red light as black  film gauge  the width of the film sock—e.g., 8mm, 16mm, 35mm, and 70mm  panchromatic  a property of a black-and-white film stock introduced in the 1920s that responds to a full spectrum of colors, rendering them as shades of gray, for a more nuanced and realistic image  Technicolor  color processing that uses three strips of film to transfer colors directly onto a single frame; developed between 1926 and 1932  camera lens  a piece of curved glass that focuses light rays in order to form an image on film  focal length  the distance from the center of the lens to the point where light rays meet in sharp focus  depth of field  range or distance before and behind the main focus of a shot within which objects remain relatively sharp and clear  wide-angle lens  a lens with a short focal length (typically less than 35mm) that allows cinematographers to explore a depth of field that can simultaneously show foreground and background objects or events in focus  handheld cameras  a lightweight camera (such as the 16mm Arriflex) that can be carried by the operator rather than mounted on a tripod; such cameras, widely used during WWII, allowed cinematography to become more mobile and fostered the advent of on- location shooting  widescreen processes  any of a number of systems introduced in the 1950s that widened the aspect ratio and the dimensions of the movie screen  anamorphic lens  a camera lens that compresses the horizontal axis of an image or a projector lens that “unsqueezes” such an image to produce a widescreen image  filters  transparent sheets of glass or gels placed in front of the lens to create various effects  flares  a spot or flash of white light created by directing strong light directly at the lens  telephoto lenses  a lens with a focal length of at least 75mm, capable of magnifying and flattening distant objects  camera movement (mobile frame)  a property of a shot in which the camera itself moves or the borders of the image are altered by a change in the focal length of the camera lens  Steadicam  a camera stabilization system introduced in 1976 that allows a camera operator to film a continuous and steady shot without losing the freedom of movement afforded by the handheld camera  IMAX  a large-format film system that is projected horizontally rather than vertically to produce an image approximately ten times larger than the standard 35mm frame  Showscan  a projection system, developed by Douglas Trumbull and marketed in 1983, that projects at sixty frames per second (rather than twenty-four frames) and creates remarkably dense and detailed images  video  electronic medium that captures, records, stores, displays, and transmits moving images  digital cinematography  shooting with a camera that records and stores visual information electronically as digital code  point of view  the position from which a person, an event, or an object is seen or filmed; in narrative form, the perspective through which events are narrated  subjective point of view  a point of view that recreates the perspective of a character  objective point of view  a point of view that does not associate the perspective of the camera with that of a specific character  framing  the portion of the filmed subject that appears within the borders of the frame; it correlates with camera distance—e.g., long shot or medium close-up  canted frame  framing that is not level, creating an unbalanced appearance  aspect ratio  the width-to-height ratio of the film frame as it appears on a movie screen or television monitor  academy ratio  an aspect ratio of screen width to height of 1.37:1, the standard adopted by the Motion Picture Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1931 and used by most films until the introduction of widescreen ratios in the 1950s; similar to the standard television ratio of 1.33:1 or 4:3  widescreen ratio  the wider, rectangular aspect ratio of typically 1.85:1 or 2.35:1  pan-and-scan process  the process used to transfer a widescreen-format film to the standard television aspect ratio; a computer- controlled scanner determines the most important action in the image, and then crops peripheral action and space or presents the original frame as two separate images  masks  attachments to the camera or devices added optically that cut off portions of the frame so that part of the image is black  iris-in  expands to reveal the entire image  iris-out  transition that gradually obscures the image by moving in  onscreen space  space visible within the frame of the image  offscreen space  the implied space outside the boundaries of the film frame  scale  determined by the distance of the camera from its subject  close-ups  framing that shows details of a person or an object, such as a character‟s face  extreme close-up (ECU)  a framing that is comparatively tighter than a close-up, singling out, for instance, a person‟s eyes, or the petal of a flower  long shot  a framing that places considerable distance between the camera and the scene or person so that the object or person is recognizable but defined by the large s
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