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A Maurice

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Chapter 5 Listening to the Cinema: Film Sound  melodrama  theatrical, literary, and cinematic narrative mode often centered on individual crises within the confines of family or other social institutions, frequently characterized by clearly identifiable moral types, coincidences and reversals of fortune, and the use of music (melos) to underscore the action  digital sound  recording and reproducing sound through technologies that encode and decode it as digital information  synchronous sound (onscreen sound)  sound that is recorded during a scene or that is synchronized with the filmed images; as used by scholar Siegfried Kracauer, a term that describes sound that has a visible onscreen source, such as moving lips  asynchronous sound  sound that does not have a visible onscreen source  onscreen sound  sound with a visible onscreen source, such as when dialogue appears to come directly from speaker’s moving lips  offscreen sound  a term used to distinguish diegetic sounds related to the action but whose source is not visible on the screen  parallelism  an instance in which the soundtrack reinforces the image, such as synchronized dialogue or sound effects or a voiceover that is consistent with what is displayed onscreen  counterpoint  using sound to indicate a different meaning or association than the image  diegetic sound  sound that has its source in the narrative world of the film, whose characters are presumed to be able to hear it  nondiegetic sound  sound that does not have an identifiable source in the characters’ world and that consequently the characters cannot sound  diegesis  a term that refers to the world of the film’s story (its characters, places, and events), including not only what is shown but also what is implied to have taken place; it comes from the Greek word meaning “narration”  source music  diegetic music; music whose source is visible onscreen  semidiegetic sound (internal diegetic sound)  sound that is neither strictly diegetic nor nondiegetic, such as certain voiceovers that can be construed as the thoughts of a character and thus as arising from the story world  sound designer  the individual responsible for planning and directing the overall sound of a film through to the final mix  sound recording  the recording of dialogue and other sound that takes simultaneously with the filming of a scene  clapboard  a device marked with the scene and take number that is filmed at the beginning of each take; the sound of its being snapped is recorded in order to synchronize sound recordings and camera images  boom  a long pole used to hold a microphone above the actors to capture sound while remaining outside the frame, handled by a boom operator  direct sound  sound captured directly from its source  reflected sound  recorded sound that is captured as it bounces from the walls and sets; it is usually used to give a sense of space; opposed to direct sound  production sound mixer  the sound engineer on the production set; also called a sound recordist  postproduction sound  sound recorded and added to a film in the postproduction phase  sound editing  combining music, dialogue, and effects tracks to interact with image track in order to create rhythmic relationships, establish connections between sound and onscreen source, and smooth or mark transitions; performed by a sound editor  sound bridge  term for sound carried over a picture transition, or a so
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