Chapter 9

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Greg Johnston

ornaments: emphasize special musical point notes French rhythmic freedom (notes inegales), ltalian melodic expansion Chapter new Italian elements in music: idioms (basso continuo, monody, recitative), styles (unprepared s line), ge opera 1772: Rameau's Treatise on Harmony outlines theoretical formulation of tonality GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF BAROQUE MUSIC t co a: VO seconda pratica: adventurous style: text dictates musical setting Monteverdi: more modern, affecting, forceful texts concertato: lta concertare: "reach agreement" 17 combining voices w/ instrument (s) instruments play independently and together w/voices cantus durus: "hard song" for harsh emotions, chords with accidentals, no key sig cantus mollis: subdued, pleasant emotions, chords from flat area of tonal spectrum key sig of one flat basso continuo: system of notation and performance keyboard, lute, etc. harmonize given bass notes with chords, figuration, improv melodies tonality: from the late 17th c onwards, an entire work is organized around a tonic note and key Caccini: Le nuove musiche: 1602 collection of solo songs w/basso continuo: madrigals (through-composed and concerted) and airs (strophic) EARLY OPERA opera: potentially lucrative drama with libretto sung to continuous music, staged with scenery and action melange of Renaissance intermedi, pastoral drama, Greek tragedy & Girolamo Mei first operas: Jacopo Peri emphasized speech imitation; invented recitative speech-song communicates to intellect and emotions less popular than other productions OPERA IN ROME AND VENICE opera development, composer and audience attention centre shifted to wealthy Rome epic subjects, castrati, recitative vs aria, focus on solo singing and not instrumental, new forms Or aria apter 10: Vo arly Baroqu N. Protestant Europe vs S. Catholic, emergence of new sacred music (sacred vocal concerto, oratorio VOCAL CHAMBER MUSIC chambe usic f ile pular concitato: Monteverdi's rapid reiteration of single note, to portray anger and war basso ostinato: short repeating pattern in bass while melody changes cantata: "a piece that was sung" solo vocal chamber work with continuo
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