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Chapter

Ample evidence supports the observation that the poorest people live near or reside in forested areas.docx

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Department
Forestry
Course Code
FOR302H1
Professor
Neera Singh

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Outline
In the following article, I will focus on describing the issues of poverty allievation and
biodiversity conservation, and demonstrating the significance of these issues and the need to include them
in global forest negotiations.
Background: The issue of poverty alleviation
Ample evidence supports the observation that the poorest people live near or reside in
forested areas, especially in developing countries such as India, for example, whereby
approximately 275 million people that live in rural areas depend on forests for their subsistence
(Sunderlin et al, 2007). To stress the significance of this issue further, the World Bank estimates
that an astonishing 1.6 billion people significantly depend on forests to support their livelihoods,
with such trends being more prevalent in tropical countries. Some common subsistence resources
that forests provide include food, medicine, nutritional supplements, and construction materials
(Kumar, 2014). Furthermore, a disproportionate amount of these forest dwellers consist of
Indigenous people, tribal minorities and marginalized groups. The reasons for this correlation
range and is still being investigated. The powerlessness of forest dwellers to outsiders - that
results from isolation, low bargaining power and low education - are some key reasons.
Likewise, forests are also a frequent destination for migrants, who are attracted to forests due to
their remoteness and open-access qualities (Sunderlin et al, 2007; Kumar, 2014). Nevertheless,
eliminating poverty in forested areas, which are ironically places that are usually rich in stocks of
natural timber wealth, is in many ways problematic. For example, among many factors, these
areas tend to have a low agricultural development potential, partly due to the fact that
development in these areas tend to be less cost effective. In addition, these areas also suffer from
low government investment due to their remoteness (Sunderlin et al, 2007; Kumar, 2014). With
that said, alleviating poverty can be seen as a human rights issue and will require the
collaborative efforts of governments, NGO’s and local communities. The historical state
approach to dealing with forest-dependent poor communities needs to change, and forests
stakeholders need to work to mitigate and reduce poverty by using innovative forestry practices –
namely, by protecting the benefits flowing to the poor, promoting tenure and rights to forest
dependent people, improving market access, and by utilizing governance regimes such as
community based forestry (Sunderlin et al, 2007; Kumar, 2014). Ultimately, poverty alleviation
is a very complex issue that is a worthy concern for the international forestry community.
Solutions & the importance for its inclusion in global forest negotiations
One way that the international global forestry community can reduce poverty in the
developing world is by implementing forestry-based poverty alleviation (FBPA) policies, which
focuses on the “use of forest resources for the purpose of lessening deprivation of wellbeing on
either a temporary or lasting basis”(Sunderlin et al, 2007). Furthermore, this approach
compromises two main objectives: to establish poverty elimination by using forest resources as a
source of income and involving communities in the forest sector, as well as poverty mitigation
through the use of forest resources to meet subsistence needs and to function as a safety net.
Through these two objectives, the potential to increase the livelihood conditions and wellbeing of
forest dwellers is optimized, and social justice can be established since the poor are given
improved access to massive streams of income from forest operations (Sunderlin et al, 2007).
However, satisfying these goals will require certain steps to be taken. To enumerate, forest tenure
should be given to forest-dependent communities, access to markets should be improved through
policy assistance, payment for environmental services should be considered, and community
forestry should be developed. By establishing forestry tenure, for example, the forest sector can
contribute to the improvement of rural communities through timber rents. By the same token,
promoting market access to forest communities (that often lack the knowledge and assets to
market forest resources) can be established by removing regulatory barriers, and involving local
producers in policy negotiations (Sunderlin et al, 2007). Community forestry regimes can be
adopted to improve the bargaining power of local producers and create a competitive advantage
through the economies of scale. Finally, payments for environmental services (PES) is a
approach that can be used to allow forest dwellers to be compensated for restoring and
maintaining the forests they inhabit. In turn, all of these conditions would enable the forest sector
and other stakeholders involved in forestry negotiations to contribute to the improvement of rural
communities (Sunderlin et al, 2007). Indeed, there is an increasing recognition from the
international forestry community that forests have the potential to play multiple roles and
provide many functions. Furthermore, the necessity to support and work with forest communities
becomes more pressing, since these people have a major influence on the ecology and
management of such forests. Taking this further, recognizing forest dwellers as legitimate
stakeholders in forest management is a moral issue that needs to be resolved (Belcher, 2005). To
conclude, although forestry is not the only solution to eliminating and mitigating poverty, there is
a need for more analysis of the relationship between the health of forests and the wellbeing of
forests communities, and such research, if supported by the international forest community, can
deliver significant insights that can improve future poverty alleviation policies (Belcher, 2005).
Background: The issue of biodiversity conservation
The number of species currently threatened with extinction outstrips the conservation
resources and means to preserve them (Myers et al, 2000). Furthermore, global biodiversity
patterns are changing at an unprecedented rate, mostly due to human-induced environmental
changes, with anthropogenic climate change being recognized as one of the biggest threats to
global biodiversity ( Sala et al, 2000; Adams & Hutton, 2007). The additional drivers of this
drastic biodiversity crisis, that is occurring across the Earth’s principle terrestrial biomes (arctic
tundra, alpine tundra, boreal forests and various grass ecosystems) include land-use changes as
well as changes in atmospheric composition, nitrogen deposition, and biotic exchanges. Among
all terrestrial ecosystems, Mediterranean-type environments, followed by tropical and southern

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Description
OutlineIn the following article I will focus on describing the issues of poverty allievation and biodiversity conservation and demonstrating the significance of these issues and the need to include them in global forest negotiations Background The issue of poverty alleviationAmple evidence supports the observation that the poorest people live near or reside in forested areas especially in developing countries such as India for example whereby approximately 275 million people that live in rural areas depend on forests for their subsistence Sunderlin et al 2007 To stress the significance of this issue further the World Bank estimates that an astonishing 16 billion people significantly depend on forests to support their livelihoods with such trends being more prevalent in tropical countries Some common subsistence resources that forests provide include food medicine nutritional supplements and construction materials Kumar 2014 Furthermore a disproportionate amount of these forest dwellers consist of Indigenous people tribal minorities and marginalized groups The reasons for this correlation range and is still being investigated The powerlessness of forest dwellers to outsidersthat results from isolation low bargaining power and low educationare some key reasons Likewise forests are also a frequent destination for migrants who are attracted to forests due to their remoteness and openaccess qualities Sunderlin et al 2007 Kumar 2014 Nevertheless eliminating poverty in forested areas which are ironically places that are usually rich in stocks of natural timber wealth is in many ways problematic For example among many factors these areas tend to have a low agricultural development potential partly due to the fact that development in these areas tend to be less cost effective In addition these areas also suffer from low government investment due to their remoteness Sunderlin et al 2007 Kumar 2014 With that said alleviating poverty can be seen as a human rights issue and will require the collaborative efforts of governments NGOs and local communities The historical state approach to dealing with forestdependent poor communities needs to change and forests stakeholders need to work to mitigate and reduce poverty by using innovative forestry practicesnamely by protecting the benefits flowing to the poor promoting tenure and rights to forest dependent people improving market access and by utilizing governance regimes such as community based forestry Sunderlin et al 2007 Kumar 2014 Ultimately poverty alleviation is a very complex issue that is a worthy concern for the international forestry community Solutionsthe importance for its inclusion in global forest negotiationsOne way that the international global forestry community can reduce poverty in the developing world is by implementing forestrybased poverty alleviation FBPA policies which focuses on the use of forest resources for the purpose of lessening deprivation of wellbeing on either a temporary or lasting basisSunderlin et al 2007 Furthermore this approach
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