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GGRA03 Ch-3.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Andre Sorensen

Ch-3 the industrial city (refers to City Hall of Dreadful night) Pollution in industrial cities: - Economic foundation of cities were coalmine, increased production of iron, use of stead, reliable mechanical power – the steam engine. - Coal replaced wood; mines were built to extract coal and iron. Coal, iron, lumber and petroleum – abundant raw materials. - Factory system encouraged centralization of production in cities – near sources of raw material, sufficient labor force and sizable markets – increased urban population and pollution. - Advent of industrial economy and specialized labor – resulted in health risks – laborers exposed to chemicals all day, potters/miners poisoned with toxic metals – mercury, lead, arsenic - High density, high mortality, high death rate of children – causes were poor housing, lack of sanitation, clean water, poor diet, endemic diseases – in short, deterioration of water, land and air Water pollution in city: - Water is critical element in production and manufacturing, ingredient for process and convenient dumping ground for industries - Cities faced 2 pressing water issues: water quality and locating sufficient water supply - -Originates from 2 main sources: residential (human, animal waste – organic compounds) and commercial (factories, businesses – inorganic compounds such as plastics, dioxins and heavy metals) - Factories usually located by river/bays – needed large quantities of water for production purposes, steam boilers, to cool engines, making and disposing of chemical and dyes – water once used, dumped back into sewers, became open sewers - Human wastes used to be dumped into water but sometimes simply put onto lands, leached into ground and polluted fresh, underground drinking water nearby wells, ponds, streams and rivers. - Population increase in cities outgrew water supply – shortage of clean, drinking water and bathing, cooking. Land pollution: - New pollutants discarded on land. Factories sought easiest way of disposal of non-liquid wastes like garbage, ashes, scrap metals and slag formed upon iron smelting, etc. disposed open or in vacant lots around city - All in street including urine, feces, animal dung, wealthy residents could afford to get waste collected else piles up for weeks at end of street corner and then dump loads at sea. - Horses were principle cause of dirty streets – too much increased population, became primary form of transportation for both people and goods, pulling wagons, trolleys, and horse cars. Issues came – horse discharged 7 times more urine than humans, 20 times more manure each day. Rain could turn street into pee pools of horses, used to get killed while generating stench due to attracting flies, causing diseases, noxious odors and noise. Difficult for horse – whipped and abused, hauling heavy loads, die sooner than normal. Air pollution: - Smoke lowering down from chimneys, burning soft coal and winter “fogs” – deaths of many in London - 2 types of coal – soft coal (bituminous) – high in sulfur, earlier were used in plenty of amount. Second – anthracite coal, hard burning but burns more cleanly - Burned coal left its mark on buildings, on laundry and in lungs of people. Air pollutants from industrial cities included soot from smokestacks and locomotives, belched chemicals – chlorine, ammonia, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, acid, methane, etc. - Concerns were there but were regarded as nuisance, 2 reasons: o Unable to link smoke with health problem even though color of buildings and clothes were changing. Unlike water pollution, where effects were straight leading to diseases, air pollution effects were “hidden” o Smoke was equated with progress, growth, jobs and prosperity of economy of city Reforms in industrial city:  Industrial city growth meant progress – consequences: o Short-term: due to environmental pollution – malfunction of bones due to lack of sunshine and poor diet, skin disease from dirty water, fever, small pox spread due to dirt, human excrement in land/water, bad diet and over population o Long term: long term exposure to pollutants and chemicals – many accepted env degradation as price for economic growth  Cholera epidemic in London in 1830/40 sparked reform, established Law of Purification before 1880’s: “clean” meant if observer could touch, taste, smell or see with naked eye, its not clean. If water was clear, odorless, tasteless, it was pure. Moving water thought to quickly dilute pollutants, so harmless discharge – “what you see if what you get”, lasted only until population was small.  Low population, human discharge used to be organic, large body of water was able to purify small quantities of pollutants; increase in population failed this law. Cities with diseases, lack of clean water, etc started losing their business to clean environment cities, also caused cities to pay attention to clean th
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