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GGRA03 Ch-8

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Andre Sorensen

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Ch-8 Wastewater in US cities: Sewer systems to collect wastewater in 19 century: CSO – Combined sewage overflow – temporary direct discharge of untreated water. CSO most frequently occur when city has combined sewer system that collects wastewater, sanitary wastewater and storm water runoff in various pipes, which then flows into single treatment facility - During dry weather, wastewater directly into sewage treatment. During rain, volume of water exceeds, rainwater is not directed separately anymore and mingles with household waste and industrial wastes - The excess volume of sewage, clean water and storm water is discharged untreated into rivers, lakes, and oceans – CSO contains untreated human and industrial waste, toxic material and debris, major sources responsible for shut down of beaches, shellfish restriction and drinking water contamination. th SSS – Sanitary Sewer System – built in cites in 20 century – have separate popes that collect sewage and storm water separately. But when rains, excess storm water can overload system, so storm water is discharged directly untreated – concentrations increased sewage plants like algae, source of damaging pollutants, beach closures and shellfish decline. - Pollutants from CSO and SSS discharge include nutrients (stimulate growth of algae); deplete dissolved oxygen in water, bacteria and other pathogens (impair drinking water, recreational resources) metals and toxic chemicals. Therefore, establishment of Secondary treatment – involves aeration and fine filtration, more controlled way of producing bacterial growth – eliminates more than 95% of disease-carrying bacteria Water quality legislation: Clean water act – 1972 – set water quality standards for all states, provided technical tools and financial assistance - Major goals: eliminate discharge of water pollutant, restore water to fishable and swimming level and completely eliminate all toxic pollutants - Not been so successful due to factors: o New technology have found new methods to find and measure pollution to high levels, which couldn’t find in last few decades o Knowle
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