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GGRA03 Ch-12.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Andre Sorensen

Ch-12 Dealing with growth: - Walked has now turned into dependence on automobile, suburban sprawl increased as metropolitan areas extern further out into countryside, farmland turned into tract housing, words into subdivision, prairie into gated communities Resistance: - Occurs especially in growth areas – rapid increase in traffic, overcrowded schools, local property taxes, all stimulate local resistance - Some residents begin to resist the latest round of development proposals – particularly strong when local residents are wealthy and organized - Loss of green space, loss of community – all fear of change, distaste for incoming riches who had money to disrupt traditional moral code - “Not here”, not this here, not here now, - success of resistance depends upon wealth, organizational skill and effective links to political power - Resistance movement has to compete with powerful development, real estate and property investment – fails due to lack of access to power and political leverage declines with income and status Smart growth: - Stresses mixed land uses and compact building design that create high densities with lower environmental impact - Focuses on existing developments in order to utilize their infrastructure, preserve open space and farmland – mixed land uses, design more compact buildings, construct walk-able communities, attractive neighborhoods with sense of place, preserve open space, direct development toward existing communities, provide variety of transport choices - Possible answer for municipalities facing heavy development pressure, save cost rebuilding in greenfield sites New urbanism: - Attempts to reorganize the city along principles of rational efficiency, good design, encouragement of community - Its response to urban sprawl – focuses revitalizing old urban centers, creating mix-use centers where residents are located close to commercial/office, planning for walk-able, high density, low- rise residential areas - Older high density cities are often portrayed as places of tight community, while recent suburban growth is seen as cause of decline in community – new urbanism discourage sprawl, produces densities too low to support public transportation, ends up creating instead a homogenous enclaves – recovery from sprawl is very much expected but recovery of community thin Slow growth: - Cities with population less than 50,000 – seeking to connect environment, equity and economy - Tend to be small, homogenous with shared political agenda. In larger heterogeneous communities, less interventionist culture, slow growth may be politically untenable Preservation: - Preservation refers to maintenance of property without significant alteration to its current condition – is guiding strategy that only intervention is normal maintenance or special work is needed to protect structure against further damage - Restoration refers to process of returning a building to its condition at specific time period – often means changing the natural evolution of a building, creating more unnatural picture of original condition – more common in historic homes, farms or churches - Reconstruction refers to building of historic structure using replicated design and/or material – approach is taken when historic structure is no longer existing – a way of presenting historical places and artifacts – living historic museum - Rehabilitation – referred as reuse – building that no longer perform their original function or use, but retain their architectural integrity – modify or update portion of structure and adapt the building for a new purpose – like abandoned factories in pubs, recreational spaces, etc. - Historic preservation – efforts for cities to celebrate past while looking to future, preserve neighborhoods as well as ecologically important area in city Urban sustainable development: - Cities now are not considered sustainable because they cannot continue in same way, consuming resources and generating waste as before - Definition of sustainable development: development that meets the needs of present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs – or – living within the carrying capacity of supporting ecosystems – or – preservation of ecological and social capital which improve long-term health of human and ecological systems - SS has its guiding agenda – protecting both of local and global – biosphere and atmosphere – to get on sustainable development, need to address local environmental and urban impacts on global climate, biodiversity and energy - Movement of modern env lead to deal with pollution, urban design and development – lead to re- integrate rather than exploit more nature, referred to as “Green Cities” – tree planting program, brownfield redevelopment, heritage preservation
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