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SS Africa text and essay notes

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Jason Hackworth

Total Population: 751 million Percent Urban Population: 35.2% Annual Urban Growth Rate: 3.5% World Cities: Johannesburg Megacity: Lagos [Chapter Themes] Least urbanized world regions but contains some of the world's most rapidly urbanizing countries Rich urban tradition preceded the arrival of colonialism in several parts of SSA Colonial impacts on urban development; particularly in the creation of primate cities along the coast Economic production and political power concentrated in primate cities Many primate cities are capital cities SSA cities have experienced major impacts from cultural globalization but minimal impacts from economic globalization Most SSA urban land-use patterns and economies are developing outside of formal regulations - significant over lap between the formal and informal sectors of the economy Many SSA cities characterized by spatial and socioeconomic inequalities and high rates of urban poverty Urban life influenced by cultural diversity SSA's interlocking urban environmental problems magnified by shortcomings in management and oversight by both governments and the private sector Countries south of the Sahara have been urbanizing rapidly since the 9160s o Rapid growth: limited employment opportunities in formal economy Hybrid City: functions as a kind of catch-all for cities with multiple morphological characteristics City building o Took place under the dominance of European colonialism; leaving an imprint on the original spatial layout, built environment, and architectural styles o Over time European influences have been modified beyond recognition o Ex. Cities built specifically for Europeans (Cape Town or Nairobi) still have European influences but have been overwhelmed by African and Asian influences o Indigenous Islamic and dual cities have nearly all witnessed the steady overlay and erasure of their original forms through colonial and postcolonial impacts Previous patterns of government dominance in urban centers have been replaced by patterns resulting from a greater reliance on private sector or nongovernmental institutions Municipal authorities shave not kept up with infrastructure, social services, or access to resources Urban residents look outside the formal economy to gain access to income, shelter, land or social services [Historical Geography of African Urban Development] Contemporary African cities based on origin o Ancient or medieval pre-colonial period o The period of the trans-Atlantic slave trade and of European trade and exploration o The period of formal colonial rule o Postcolonial period Hard to differentiate cities using these categories o Example: Zanzibar, Tanzania o 1100s: indigenous urban center o 1500s: refashioned under the domination of outsiders from Portugal o 1690s: Oman domination o 1700-1800s: European and American slave trade o British Colonial capital o Postcolonial socialist revolution Ancient and Medieval Pre-colonial Urban Centers Prominent urban centers before 1500 A.D. are now ruins Other ancient cities bypassed by as Europe focused on urban development along the coast 5 major urban centers before 1500 o Ancient: Upper Nile/Ethipopian centers of Meroe, Axum, And Adulis o Medieval: Sahelian (or western Sundanese) cities of West Africa's trading empires, such as Kumbi Saleh, Timbuktu, Gao and Jenne o Timbuktu, Gao, and Jenne were widely regarded for their scholarship in medieval times but stagnated in the 15th century Timbuktu: In the early 21st century, attempts made to restore its libraries from the 13th and 4th century history and religion texts o Gao and Jenne no longer exists Sudan survived the new, post-1500 world and developed into important contemporary settlements o Because of their 19th century rulers derived great strength from Islamic religoius jihad movements the Hausa cities of today's northern Nigeria and southern Niger emerged as important urban centers Post-1500 growth of many ancient and medieval Nigerian cities o Yoruba cities of southwestern Nigeria had developed metalwork artistry o Benin-Yoruba cities were well positioned to capitalize on the new trade with Europeans after 1500 Trading cities include Mogadishu and Mombasa - also grew after 1500 o But many costal settlements with whom they traded have disappeared Coastal trading centers on the Red sea and Indian Ocean arose in ancient times and an extensive trade linking the African interior from Zimbabwe north to Lake Victoria with the Arab and Persian peoples of Asia flourished for more than a thousand years Urban Development after 1500 Growth of coastal West and Central African cities in the midst of the trans-Atlantic slave trade Portuguese established St. Louis in the 1440s at the mouth of Senegal River Dutch founded Cape Town in 1652 French and British established West African coastal towns o Conakry, Calabar Fort towns: Dutch built Fort Ussher in 1650, British built Fort James on the Gambia in 1633 19th century, decline of slave trade superseded by "legitimate trade" in African raw materials During European formal colonialism o Urban geography took form by the coast, minimal impacts in the interior o Coastal settlements were intended as transshipment points for trade and lacked regular urban facilities (except those that served as European housing or as port and defense establishments) o Lack of diffusion of European technology and culture to interior's indigenous urban centers African Urbanization in the Era of Formal Colonial Rule Lasted from the 1880s through outbreak of WWI Ethiopia, Liberia, South Africa (dominantly white) independent British, French, German, Italian, Portuguese, Belgian and Spanish colonial powers controlled the rest of SSA Social and physical aspects of urban development followed the social and political objectives of European powers Colonial regimes moved aggressively into the interior of their colonies and urban settlements sprang up or expanded from existing towns along infrastructure lines, near mines or large-scale plantation areas and in regions requiring administrative centers Colonial regimes prioritized export of minerals, metals, or primary goods to Europe To support the scale of trade that flowed between Africa and Europe and to control the colonies, larger administrations emerged, leading to an outsized service sector for the comparatively shrunken state of secondary-sector activities o Urban services were generally quite warped by race and class Post WWII, growth of investment in many urban areas because decolonization movements to shape Africa away from Soviet influences British settlements o Substantial white settlement o Highly segregated urban residential patterns regulated by more ridged building rules and land- use laws Postcolonial Urbanization 1960-1980s rapid urbanization In less than 50 years, some eastern and southern African countries have gone from rural
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