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Canada (158,300)
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GGR100H1 (41)
Chapter 9

Chapter 9- textbook

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University of Toronto St. George
Joseph Leydon

Chapter 9- Water Resources 01:56 The hydrologic Cycle hydrologic cycle, which has operated from billions of years from lower atmosphere to several kilometers beneath Earths surface The cycle involves the circulation and transformation of water throughout Earths atmosphere A hydrologic Cycle Model 97% of earths water is in the ocean and here most evaporation and precipitation occur the other 14% is from the land including water moving from the soil into plant roots and passing through their leaves 86% of evaporation rising from the ocean 66% combines with 12% adverted from the land to produce the 78% of all precipitation that falls back into ocean remaining 20% of moisture evaporated from the ocean plus 2% of land derived moisture produces the 22% of all precipitation that falls over land various parts of the cycle will vary creating imbalances and depending on climate surpluses in one region and shortages in another Surface Water Precipitation that reaches earths surface follows two pathways flows overland or soaks into soil Along the way interception occurs when precipitation strikes vegetation or other ground cover Intercepted water that drains across plant leaves and down teir stems to the ground is stem flow and can be an important moisture route to the ground Precipitation that falls directly to the ground constitutes throughfall Water soaks into the subsurface through infiltration or pentration of the soil surface Permeates soil or rock through the downward movement of percolation the residence time for a water molecule in any part of the hydrologic cycle determines its relative importance in affecting earths climates Soil Water-Budget Concept a soil water budget can be established from any area of earths surface key is measuring the precipitation supply input and its distribution to satisfy the demand outputs of plants evaporation and soil moisture storage in the area considered precipitation income must be balanced against expenditures storage acts as a saving account, accepting deposits and withdrawals of water The Soil Water Balance Equation Precipitation provides the moisture input Actual water taken by evaporation and plant transpiration, extra water that exits in streams and subsurface ground water and recharge or utilization of soil moisture storage Precipitation (PRECIP) Input The moisture supply to earths surface is precipitation Precipitation is measured with the rain gauge A rain gauge is essentially a large measuring cup collecting rainfall and snowfall so the water can be measured by depth, weight or volume Wind can cause an undercatch because the drops or snowflakes are not falling vertically Acutal Evapotranspiration (ACTET) Evaporation is the net movement of free water molecules way from a wet surface into air that is less than saturated www.notesolution.com
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