Textbook Notes (363,233)
Canada (158,276)
Geography (186)
GGR100H1 (41)
Chapter 14

Chapter 14- Textbook

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University of Toronto St. George
Joseph Leydon

Chapter 14- River Systems and Landforms 01:55 Fluvial Processes and Landscapes Stream- related processes are fluvial Fluvial systems like all natural systems have characteristic process and produce recognizable landforms The term river is applied to a trunk or main stream or an entire river system Stream is a more general term not necessarily related to size Isolation and gravity power the hydrologic cycle and are the driving forces of fluvial systems Water dislodges , dissolves or removes surface material in the erosion process Streams produce fluvial erosion in which weather sediment is picked up for transport to new locations A stream is a mixture of water and solids are carried in suspension by mechanical transport and in dissolved solutions Materials are laid down by another process, deposition Alluvium is the general term for the clay, silt , sand, gravel and mineral fragments deposited by running water as sorted or semi-sorted sediment on a floodplain, delta or streambed Base Level of Streams Base level is a level below which a stream cannot erode its valley The ultimate base level is seal level, the avg level btw high and low tides A local base level or temporary one, may control the lower limit of local streams for a region The local base level may be a river, a lake , hard and resistant rock Landforms are produced by 2 basic processes: 1. Erosive action of flowing water and 2. Depostion of stream- transported materials Drainage Basins Every stream has a drainage basin, ranging in size from tin to vast Every drainage basin is defined by ridges that form drainage divides that is the ridges are the dividing limes that control into which basin precipitation drains Drainage divides define a watershed the catchment area of the drainage basin In any drainage basin, water initially moves downslope in a thin film called sheetflow or overland flow Drainage Divides and Basins Several high drainage divides called continental divides in Canada and USA A major drainage basin system is made up of many smaller drainage basins Each drainage basin gathers and delivers its precipitation and sediment to a larger basin Drainage Basins as Open Systems Drainage basins are open systems Inputs include precipitation and the minerals and rocks of the regional geology System outputs of water and sediment disperse through the mouth of the river into a lake another river Change that occurs in any portion of a drainage basin can affect the entire system A stream drainage system constantly struggles toward equilibrium among the interacting variables of discharge, transported load channel shape and channel steepness Internal Drainage Most streams find their way to progressively larger rivers and eventually into the ocean In some regions however stream drainage does not reach the ocean www.notesolution.com
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