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GGR100H1 (41)
Chapter 18

Chapter 18- textbook

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Joseph Leydon

Chapter 18- The Geography of Soils 01:51 Soil Characteristics Soil Profiles A soil profile should be studied from the surface to the deepest extent of plant roots or to where regolith or bedrock is encountered Such a profile is a pedon, a hexagonal column measuring 1 to 10 m^2 A pedon is the basic sampling unit used in soil surveys Many pedons together in one area make up a polypedon which has dsitinctibe characteristics differentiating it from surrounding polypedons A polypedon is an essential soil individual comprising an identifiable series of soils in an area Soil Horizones Each distinct layer exposed in pedon is soil horizon A horizon is roughly parallel to the pedons surface and has characteristics distinctly different from horizons directly above or below At the top of the soil profile is the O( organic) horizon named for its organic composition derived from plant and animal litter that was deposited on the surface and transformed into humus Humus is not jus a single material; material usually dark in colour At the bottom of the soil profile is the R(rock) horizon consisting of either unconsolidated (loose) material or consolidated bedrock The A, Ae, B, and C horizons mark differing minera strata btw O and R The middle layers are composed of san, silt, clay, and other weathered by-products The A horizon is mineral layer that forms at or near the surface The removal of fine particles and minerals by water, leaving behind sand and silt is termed eluviation this thus the e notation The accumulation or enrichment of organic matter, oxides or clay dominates, or clay dominates the B horizon The depositions of these materials is known as illuviation The combination of the A and E horizons and the B horizon is designated the solum, considered the true definable soil of the pedon Soil Properties Soil Colour Colour is important for its sometimes suggests composition and chemical makeup. If you look at exposed soil colour ay be the most oblivious trait However, colour can be deceptive: Soils of high humas content are often dark, yet clays of warm- temperate and tropical regions with less than 3% organic content are some of the worlds blackest soils Soil Texture Refers to the mixture of sizes of its particles and the proportion of different sizes Individual mineral particles are soil separates, all particles smaller in diameter part of soil , large particles not part of soil www.notesolution.com
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