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GGR107H1 (52)
Chapter 2

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Department
Geography
Course
GGR107H1
Professor
Charles Z Levkoe
Semester
Summer

Description
Chapter 2 Chapter 2: Geography: Its Development, Research Theme, and Concepts 2.1 Getting started o Learning abut geography can teach us about what is happening in the world o Connections can be made between ozone depletion and global warming o Geography is known as spatial science o Geography discovers the spatial arrangements o Does not deal with abstract items o You are aware of what you are doing now o You have an observation/understanding of how the world works: you understand geography personally o UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan believed that the UN and geographers dealt with the same problems; humanity, climate change, consumption, poverty o Geography classroom should be able to put in context what they learn to the real world o Geographic technologies could allow for developmental systems to warn us about natural disasters o Geographers can contribute to the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment which will map the Un geographic Information Working Group is specially geographically based Spotlight Box 2.1 o Different types of careers in geography o Work for the government or in the field o Jobs that find data in health care, transportation, population, and economy o Geographic training can be used to plan businesses and market analysis o Geography is concerned about both the natural sciences (physical geography) and social/liberal sciences (human geography) o Geography does not look at a place as somewhere on a map, it combines the geographical location with the aspects of the culture 2.2 Evolution of the discipline o Geography came from a Greek scientist Eratosthenes geo means Earth and graphien means to write o Strabo (64 B.C.E-A.C.E 20) took on the task of describing the land o Herodotus wrote a book about people, land and economies of the Persian empire o Greek (then the Romans) measured the Earth creating meridian (marking latitudes and longitudes o Explored different climates o They could describe river systems, deforestations, variations in natural landscapes o They also focused on language and culture of humans o The ancient Chinese were involved in geography as an explanatory viewpoint o Early map of trading in Canada 2.3 The Evolution of geography in Europe o Immanuel Kant was influenced by temporal (history) and spatial geography o He stated that geography changes over time o Alexander von Humboldt wrote Cosmos with its subtitle Sketch of a physical description of the world o He focused more on the interactions between people o He make comparisons and connections between different places o Carl Ritter observed landscapes and how humans interacted with the environment o During the Renaissance period (1350-1750) European explorers would map areas o High demand for accurate navigation maps o As trades became important map making was important o Importance of geography was highlighted in the 1800s when Prussian (now German) government decided to allow chairs of geography at the university Spotlight Box 2.2: Environmental Determination, Possibilism and Probabilism o Environmental determinism: environment is determined by human activities o Friedrich Ratzel published a book that illustrates environmental determinism o Elleworth Huntingston: cilivalizations could develop in regions of hot climates; mid latitudes o Griffith Taylor first people to have a chair in the geography department of Canada o General desire by geographers to provide explanations of human settlements o Lucien Febvre had the idea of possibilism that the environment can have effects on human activities o Probabilism lies somewhere between possibilism and environmental determination o 1953 paper by Fred Schaeler challenged the discipline to adopt more scientific approach o He wanted a more rule and systematic approach o 160s maps had measurements, traffic records and we much more organized o Focused mainly on direction and distance o 1960s and early 1970s geography was criticize for not being able to explain human patterns or the landscape o People were not able to use this for economical gain o Researchers called behaviouralist can provide a general explanation to how humans should adjust to urban areas o Since 1970 a number of philosophies have been influential; social and technological o Radical geographies include Marxism and structuralism o Examining why people make decisions based on geography o Why we dress certain ways Spotlight Box 2.3: Feminist Geographies o Radical geographies exists when examining males and females o Inequity exists and geographies try to determine why this happens o Some philosophers try to determine political geographies o Development of technology using computers can make mapping easier Spotlight Box 2.4: The Geographical Standards o Use to develop geography as a subject matter o World in Spatial Terms o 1. How to use maps in spatial terms o 2. Mental naps to recognize people, places and environment o 3. How to analyze the spatial context o Places and Regions o 4. The physical and human characteristics of places o 5. People creating regions to understand the Earth’s complexity o 6. How culture and experience influence people’s perceptions of places o Physical Systems o 7. The physical systems that change the earth’s surface o 8. The characteristics of the Earth’s surface o Human Systems o 9. Characteristics, distribution and migration of human population on earth’s surface o 10. Characteristics, distribution and complexity of earth’s culture mosaics o 11. Patterns and networks of economical interdependence on earth’s surface o 12. Processes, patterns and functions of human settlement o 13. How the focuses of cooperation and conflict among people the division and control of the earth of the earth’s surface o Society and the environment o 14. How human actions modify the physical environment o 15. How physical environment effects humans o 16. The changes that occur in meaning, use, distribution and importance of recourses o The Uses of Geography o 17. How to apply geography to interpret the past o 18. How to use geography to plan for the future and present o The Canadian associated of Geographers (CAG) started in 1951 at a meeting in Montreal by 65 people o First honorary president was Griffith Taylor and first president D.F Putnam o Strong relationship between CAG and the public o Prior to the 1960s the majority of geographers were white and male o 1950s and 1960s increa
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