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Canada (161,803)
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GGR107H1 (52)
Chapter 3

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Department
Geography
Course
GGR107H1
Professor
Charles Z Levkoe
Semester
Summer

Description
Chapter 3 Unit 2: Food, Technology, and the Environment Chapter 3: Agricultural Systems o 3.1 Introduction o Agriculture or farming is rearing animal and harvesting crops o It involves the interaction between people and the environment o It has lasted over 10,000 years o Plants and animals spread from the near east into the southern-eastern Europe o Methods of trading began with the Greek and then was adopted by the romans o Agriculture is from the Latin word agar and Greek word agros meaning field o 3.2 The agri-ecosystem o Unlike many aspects of economic activity the contributions of the physical environment can contribute to nature o Humans are now able to modify plants and crops o The purpose is to harvest the greatest number of crops o Farmers use harmful technologies and chemical to produce these crops o 3.3 Climate and agriculture o The greatest limitations can be soil type, nutrient availability, topography and drainage o Even modern plant breeding has its limits o 3.3.1 Temperature o Both plant and animal growth needs to be grown in at a certain temperature o There are also different growing seasons for crops o There is usually an optimum yield o Each crop has a critical temperature range (look at C3 and C4 crops) o The minimum amount is where there is insufficient heat o The optimum at rates of metabolic processes are at their maximum o The maximum beyond growth ceases o Some crop require different amounts of times; some grow during the day while others at night o 4 Different types of crops o Short day, long night: with a photoperiod of under ten hours e.g soybean, sweet potatoes, millet These occur at low latitudes where spring and autumn are warm enough to allow their harvest cycle to be completed o Long day/Short night with a photoperiod of over 14 hours e.g small grains, timothy, sweet clover. High latitudes o Intermediate day, with a photoperiod of 12-14 hours and an inhibition of reproduction either above or below these levels o Day-neutral unaffected by day length o This is important to farmers because they can use their time and space correctly o There are different growing seasons based on geography o 3.3.2 Water o Water is important for agriculture o Water provides nutrients for plants o Water can also carry pesticides and chemical from plants causing health concerns o Irrigation impacts crop productivity o The salinity and the alkalify of the water can cause problems o 3.4 Agricultural soils o Primary agricultural management practice is the cultivation of soil o Soil can vary due to structure, depth, nutrient content and acidity o Deeper the soil the better it is at storing minerals o Soils that are less deep are not able to s
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