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Canada (158,052)
Geography (186)
GGR107H1 (52)


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University of Toronto St. George
Charles Z Levkoe

12-05-18 4:08 PM 4.3 Soil degradation: Problems and solutions Scientists have studied soil texture and pH Many soils may deviate from the pH levels 4.3.1 Regional differences in soil traits can affect agriculture Soil varies from different locations Swidden: traditional form agriculture in tropical forest; farner cultivates one plot and then leaves it alone for awhile and cultivates another plot 4.3.2 Erosion can be degrade ecosystems and agriculture Deposition: is the arrival of new eroded material Erosion and deposition are natural processes that create soil Erosion removes topsoil the most nutrient rich part of soil Overcultivated can lead to removing topsoil Overgrazing rangelands with more livestock than the land can support Clear cutting forests areas with steep slopes It can be gradual and hard to detect 4.3.3 Soil erodes by several mechanisms Wind erosion Four types of water erosion 4.3.4 Soil erosion is a global pattern Erosion has made a significant impact on Canadian agriculture It is extremely costly to reduce the effects of soil erosion 4.3.5 Desertification reduces productivity of arid land Desertification: is land degradation that occurs in arid and semi-arid Severe desertification can lead to deserts The land can become dry 4.3.6 The Dust Bowl was a monumental event in America At the end of 1929 the stock market crashed Price of seed rose and during the 1930s there were periods of drought Dust Bowl: Prairies and Great Plains Grasshoppers began invaded and chicken ate them, this caused chicken meat and eggs to taste bad Farmers then began planting other plants such as oat, rye, flax, peas and alfalfa 4.3.7 The soil conservation Council emerged from the experience of drought 1935 the Prairie Farm Rehabilitation was set up To develop a natural spirit and conservation of soil To improve soil degradation understanding among Canadians To facilitate the communication among soil conservation groups, government and communities To communicate with the general policy To encourage the developmental management of agriculture, forestry and land use Today there are a number of different agencies that help preserve land Food and agriculture Organization (FAO) Farmer-centered Agricultural Resource Management (FARM) 4.3.8 Farmers can protect soil against degradation Several different techniques to prevent soil degradation Crop rotation: alternating the crop grown in one season This allows to nutrients to grow back Contour farming: Water running down a hill can carry the soil away Land has to be specially sloped Contour farming can have furrows Intercropping and agroforestry: planting alternative bands of the crops More complete grounds to cover
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