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GGR206H1 (1)
Chapter 1

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Jennifer Harris

Chapter 1 Introduction  Physical hydrology: is the study of physical, movement and occurrence of water on and below the surface  This chapter deals with issues of climate hydrology or global hydrology 1.1 Major water types  Atmospheric water: water above the land surface; water is usually water vapor but it can be liquid or solid  Surface water: water stored in ponds, lakes, streams or rivers  Water table: when water rises from the ground from a pit  Saturated zone: zone below the water table  Groundwater: water is stored  Unsaturated zone: contains soil with both air and water  Soil water: where water is stored from unsaturated zone  Fresh water is important to humans but only 2.5% is avalible for drinking o 69% is in ice, 30% is from groundwater and 1% is surface water o Most underground water is contaminated by salt  Box 1.1 What if all the polar caps melt? o Sea levels have been changing due to increase in temperature o Sea levels are rising 1.2 Hydrological cycle  hydrological cycle: describes the way water is heated by the sun and evaporates into water vapour  Greenhouse gases effect the Earth's climate  They warm up the Earth's climate by CO2 known as the greenhouse effect  Without the greenhouse effect the Earth would be -18 C  Burning fossils fuels adds to the effect of greenhouse gases  Average residence time: average time for water to refill itself  Evaporation leaves salts and causes water vapor  Water vapor can return by raining over land (short cut) or through raining over an ocean (feedback  Overall the process is continuous  Scientists believe that global warming is speeding up the processes of the hydrological cycle Box 1.2 Can global warming cause an ice age?  An hypothesis by Broecker is that global warming can create another ice age  Gulf Stream is deeper than thermohaline extension, there is positive feedback in this systems  Scientists predict that the waters will not be as cold 1.3 Drainage basin hydrological processes  Drainage basin or catchment: geographical drainage area to rivers or reservoir  Water flows from drainage basin boundaries and surface
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