Historically, to survive cities had to respect their environment. Cities that did not do so were
unable to draw natural resources essential to their survival and vanished over time.
Chapter 2, Epochs of Canadian Urban Development
The Mercantile Era, 1600-1800
During this era, Canada developed in a typically colonial fashion.
During these years, the population of Canada was low, but it had a big land.
According to Staples Theory, developed by Harold Innis the demographic, economic and
political evolution of Canada was a function of the nature of the resources it exported.
The reason, Canada had a such low population, because during the mercantile era, when Canada
shipped fur, and other things, it shipped it in the small ships, and the space was limited, so there
was not a lot of space in the ship to bring them to Canada,
The urban form of the small Canadian Settlements of the time was pedestrian-oriented and in
most cases adhered to gridiron road plans. (The configuration of urban areas)
Agricultural Settlements, 1800-1850
This period was marked by much higher rates of immigration and a burgeoning population.
The reason, there was a high rate of immigration to Canada, was due to the circumstances in
Europe and Irish famine and late enclosure in the Scottish Highlands.
So during those times, there was a high demand for lumber, and eventually more land was
cleared for agriculture, bigger ships were going across the sea and more people would come to
Great Transition, 1850-1945
During this period, major transitions occurred such as railway network, expansion of staples
economy in prairies and formation of an industrial heartland.
Heartland – The part of Canada where the industrial economy is concentrated. The heartland is
also location of the largest metropolitan regions. The Canadian heartland runs from Quebec
City to Windsor
The Quebec City-Windsor corridor became known as the heartland of Canada (Mainstream)