Lecture 2, Chapter 2 and 3
Tuesday, September 21, Chapter 1 & 2
What is a City? What is Urban Geography?
There are seven principles or properties that make up a city, Production, Proximity,
Reproduction, Capitalization, Place, Governance and Environment.
These properties account for the existence of cities, that relate to cities of the past and present
PAGE 15, for more info
Need for cities to produce goods and services for their own residents and to be exported beyond
their territories to assure the purchase of the goods and services that cannot be procured within
their territory. Production attracts people to cities
Economic production – creates jobs and brings people into the city and it is the main reason for
Fish, furs and timber were first establishment of merchandise in Canada.
Cities depend for their natural resources on a territory, I.E ecological footprint
For a city to exist, it must be in a position to export sufficient goods and services to counter-
balance its imports.
Cities are made of numerous overlapping markets of frequently repeated exchanges, with a
predominant structuring role taken by the labour market. Proximity makes these exchanges
possible; otherwise they would be ruled out by excessive travel time and cost
The term proximity is all about groups of people interacting with one another, the reason people
come to live to city is because they want to build a community, also, educational establishment,
shopping opportunities, cultural activities, entertainment, friends and family, medical facilities.
Living in a city you are being connected to everything, Work and Home, Business owners and
their jobs, and so on, this is why the cost of living in a city is more than in rural areas.
Reproduction refers to the different conditions needed for the availability of labour force that is
well suited to the needs of production sector for an urban area. A narrow definition of
reproduction relates to the replacement of generations and the presence of conditions needed to
maintain health. A broader definition includes education and much of household consumption,
including even entertainment.
Production and Reproduction are tied to each other very closely
Reproduction is basically a continued re-production of workers, I.E birth and child-rear, but for
people to decide to reproduce, health care, education work, community support and so on, must
be available and provided.
Refers to all investments in the built environment of cities, as well as to this built environment
itself. The capitalization property of cities derives from its dense urban environment.
Capitalization is a factor of stability and durability for cities, and can be obstacles to the
implementation of innovations.
Capitalization refers to the vast recourses invested in urban areas, to provide services and offices
in order to expand its population.
The land in cities is limited, so what capitalization does is it invests to maximize the use of it.
Place is about feelings, either positive or negative, associated with different locales in the urban
environment. It refers to subjective reactions to these aspects of the city. Efforts are made by
different professions involved in urban development to associate positive meaning with their
projects. The types of urban places that are most valued vary over time
Cities require interventions that are suited to their reality, thus specialized forms of
administration to formulate and deliver these interventions. They also rely on the knowledge that
is essential to these interventions. Need to deal with issues related to concentration of activities
and urban infrastructures.
Historically, to survive cities had to respect their environment. Cities that did not do so were
unable to draw natural resources essential to their survival and vanished over time.
Chapter 2, Epochs of Canadian Urban Development
The Mercantile Era, 1600-1800
During this era, Canada developed in a typically colonial fashion.
During these years, the population of Canada was low, but it had a big land.
According to Staples Theory, developed by Harold Innis the demographic, economic and
political evolution of Canada was a function of the nature of the resources it exported.
The reason, Canada had a such low population, because during the mercantile era, when Canada
shipped fur, and other things, it shipped it in the small ships, and the space was limited, so there
was not a lot of space in the ship to bring them to Canada,
The urban form of the small Canadian Settlements of the time was pedestrian-oriented and in
most cases adhered to gridiron road plans. (The configuration of urban areas)
Agricultural Settlements, 1800-1850
This period was marked by much higher rates of immigration and a burgeoning population.
The reason, there was a high rate of immigration to Canada, was due to the circumstances in
Europe and Irish famine and late enclosure in the Scottish Highlands.
So during those times, there was a high demand for lumber, and eventually more land was
cleared for agriculture, bigger ships were going across the sea and more people would come to
Great Transition, 1850-1945
During this period, major transitions occurred such as railway network, expansion of staples
economy in prairies and formation of an industrial heartland.
Heartland – The part of Canada where the industrial economy is concentrated. The heartland is
also location of the largest metropolitan regions. The Canadian heartland runs from Quebec
City to Windsor
The Quebec City-Windsor corridor became known as the heartland of Canada (Mainstream)